July 12, 2018

Mini-History of the School of Architecture

The School of Architecture was one of several Western Reserve University schools that existed prior to becoming part of the University. It is also one of our schools that had a separate existence as a deparment after the school was closed. The sketch below outlines some of the school’s history. The focus is on 1929 till 1953, while it was a Western Reserve University school.

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School of Architecture Class of 1929

Some Key Dates
1921 Cleveland Chapter of the American Institute of Architects began supporting a course in architecture
1924 Cleveland School of Architecture was incorporated
1929 Cleveland School of Architecture affiliated with Western Reserve University
6/13/1929 First degrees, Bachelor of Architecture, conferred on eight graduates, by Western Reserve University
9/17/1929 First School of Architecture classes were offered as part of Western Reserve University
1941 Cleveland School of Architecture was renamed the School of Architecture
1953 School of Architecture closed. The Department of Architecture continued almost 20 years, closing in 1972
6/10/1953 The School of Architecture’s last commencement ceremony was held, at which 15 graduates received the Bachelor of Architecture.
1929-1953 Frances R. Bacon was Dean of the School of Architecture for its entire life as a school of Western Reserve University

Curriculum
The 1929/30 catalog lists over 40 architecture courses, including Elements of Architecture, Cast Drawing, History of Architecture, Theory of Design, and more. Students also took classes in English, Math, Physics, and French.

Degrees Offered and Awarded
1929/30-1940/41 Bachelor of Architecture offered
1941/42-1942/43 Bachelor of Science offered
1943/44-1952/53 Bachelor of Architecture offered
1929-1953 nearly 200 undergraduate degrees were awarded by the School of Architecture.
Adelbert, Mather, and Cleveland Colleges also offered the Bachelor of Architecture degree. The Master of Arts degree in architecture was offered by the School of Graduate Studies.

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Architecture students constructing models

Tuition
1929/30-1945/46 $300/year with an estimated materials cost of $50
1946/47-1947/48 $12.50/credit hour
1948/49 $14/credit hour
1949/50-1952/53 $16/credit hour

Enrollment
1929-1953 total of 1,623 students enrolled; average of 67 annually
1943/44 low enrollment: 11 students
1948/49 high enrollment: 114 students

Locations
1927-1930 11015 Euclid Avenue
1930-1945 Garfield House at 11206 Euclid Avenue
1945-1953 Pierce Hall

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June 29, 2018

Energy Conservation on Campus - 40 years ago

In the 1970s the university was dealing with the energy crisis as were individuals at home. Amid skyrocketing costs and shortages, the university imposed measures to conserve energy. Utilities costs rose dramatically. As reported in News & Views 11/1/1974, CWRU used less energy in 1973/74 than 1972/73. “Campus facilities (excluding housing) used nearly two million fewer kilowatts of electricity, cut use of steam by some 30 million pounds, and reduced gas consumption by about 31 thousand cubic feet. These are impressive figures--until you realize that the total cost for utilities was about $60,000 higher in fiscal ‘73-’74 than a year earlier despite these substantial cutbacks. This ironic situation is explained by the major increases in the cost of energy in all forms which hit consumers, including CWRU, throughout the first half of calendar 1974.”

Utility costs continued to rise throughout the 1970s and 1978 saw the university impose strict measures in the wake of a nationwide 16 week coal strike. During the winter of 1977-1978 blizzard conditions caused the university to be closed for 2 days, believed to be the first for a snow closure since 1950. The storm caused some broken windows,roof damage and ruptured pipes, but the overall damage was less than anticipated. The university was able to operate almost normally through the winter and the coal strike because the Medical Center Company had stockpiled a sufficient amount of coal to heat the campus. Supplies of electricity were more critical. The Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company unveiled a plan to reduce consumption by 20% for individuals and institutions. On 2/14/1978 CWRU issued its first statement about voluntary energy cutbacks in News & Views. Effective Wednesday, 2/15/1978:

“1. Lights will be turned off in all rooms having a window or windows between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m.
2. All space heaters, radios and other electric devices not directly used in accomplishing work-related tasks will be turned off.
3. The University Bookstore will close at 5:00 p.m. instead of 6:00 p.m. weekdays.
4. University facilities will not be available to off-campus groups.”

Building monitors were assigned to each campus building to enforce the first 2 procedures. These were mandatory procedures that all employees were expected to comply with. In addition, some elevators were shut down and outdoor lighting cut back. The university realized approximately 18% savings from these measures by 3/9/1978. Ohio Governor James Rhodes requested all Ohioans conserve at least 25% of their normal electrical usage, leading the university to its second phase of energy reductions. According to News & Views (3/9/1978) these procedures went into effect Saturday, 3/11/1978:

“1. Libraries will begin operating with reduced hours. Specific hours will be announced next week.
2. The three campus gymnasia will be open daytime hours only.
3. Elevators in all dormitories (except high rise buildings) and many other buildings will be turned off.
4. Reductions in air handling equipment and lab hoods will be continued.
5. Lights will be turned off in most non-dormitory parking lots.
6. Non-work related electrical equipment, including coffee pots (underlined) and certain vending machines should be turned off.
7. Use of copy machines should be limited, whenever possible. Copy machines should be turned off when not in use.
8. Use of University auditoriums by off-campus groups will be canceled.”

The first phase of energy saving procedures remained in effect.

By late March the coal strike was settled. The 3/27/1978 issue of News & Views reported that CWRU did its part to reduce energy consumption during the latter 5 weeks of the strike. Use of electricity was reduced campus-wide by approximately 20-25 percent. Vice President Musselman thanked faculty, staff, and students for their cooperation during the emergency energy cutback. Musselman stated, “We learned some things during these cutbacks. We identified some areas of excessive use of electricity, where the cutbacks will become permanent parts of our ongoing conservation efforts....With the receipt of this notice Phase I and II mandatory cutbacks are cancelled. However, I want to emphasize again that conservation of energy has become a way of life and the University must continue to do its part to eliminate all excessive and unnecessary consumption of electricity. Everyone give a little thought to this fact of life, before automatically turning on lights and appliances that have been off, and perhaps not badly missed.”

All the elevators shut down during the crisis were restored to service.

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Medical Center Company air pollution control device installed at the power plant in 1978. It was referred to as the Bag House.

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June 05, 2018

On This Day in CWRU History: June

Below is the last month of our list of significant dates in CWRU’s history. The list is not comprehensive and we invite suggestions of other dates to include.

June 1
1978: CWRU Trustees established the John S. Diekhoff Award for Distinguished Graduate Teaching.

June 2
1960: Mei Mei Wang became the first woman awarded a Ph.D. from the Case Institute of Technology. Dr. Wang also received her M.S. in Chemical Engineering from Case in 1958.

June 5
1939: Fred Easly Sheibley received the first Ph.D. conferred by Case School of Applied Science.
1997: The Campus Greens, location of Philip Johnson's sculpture Turning Point, was dedicated.

June 8
1905: Ambrose Swasey, longtime trustee of the Case School of Applied Science and Western Reserve University, received the honorary Doctor of Engineering degree, the first honorary degree awarded by CSAS.

June 9
1955: Millicent C. McIntosh, president, Barnard College, and dean, Columbia University received an honorary degree from Case Institute of Technology, the only woman to receive that honor.

June 10
1890: Western Reserve University and Case School of Applied Science participated in their first track meet, competing with Mt. Union and Hiram Colleges. Held at the YMCA Park in Cleveland, WRU won the meet.

June 11
1901: Haydn Hall's cornerstone was laid. Named in honor of former WRU president Hiram Haydn. Haydn Hall opened as a women's dormitory.
1908: The cornerstone for the Morley Chemistry Laboratory was laid. The building was named in honor of former WRU faculty member Edward Morley.
1911: Amasa Stone Chapel, named in honor of Cleveland businessman Amasa Stone, was dedicated.
1913: Cleveland mayor Newton D. Baker spoke at Western Reserve University's College for Women commencement ceremony. His speech was entitled, "The Place of a College for Women in a Great City."
1929: Western Reserve University Trustees approved an affiliation with the Cleveland School of Architecture.
1935: Western Reserve University Trustees renamed the School of Nursing in honor of U. S. Congresswoman Frances Payne Bolton.
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Frances Payne Bolton

June 12
1923: Western Reserve University Trustees established the School of Nursing.
1935: Olive Baxter Stevens became the first woman to graduate from the School of Architecture, six years after its affiliation with Western Reserve University.

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Hudson Relay, 1910

June 13
1900: The cornerstone was laid for Harkness Chapel, Western Reserve University's first chapel building. It was named in honor of Florence Harkness Severance.
1910: The Hudson Relay was run for the first time. The class of 1912 won, with a finish time of 2 hours and 1 minute.
1912: Four years after the Cleveland School of Pharmacy affiliated with Western Reserve University, Birdie Rehmer became its first woman graduate.
1934: Winfred G. Leutner was inaugurated as Western Reserve University's eighth president, and was the only alumnus to serve as president of WRU.
1961: Aaron Strauss was the first recipient of the Kent H. Smith award, awarded to the outstanding engineering senior, who "displays extraordinary qualities of leadership, character, and scholarship."
1992: Karen Horn was elected as the first woman chair of the CWRU Board of Trustees

June 14
1911: The cornerstone was laid for Flora Stone Mather Memorial Building. It became the main administration building for Flora Stone Mather College.
1929: The cornerstone for the Institute of Pathology was laid.
1957:
Camp Case
, in Mohican State Forest near Loudonville, Ohio, closed. It served as a summer survey camp for Case Institute of Technology students for 21 years.
June 15
1885: Case School of Applied Science held its first commencement, graduating 5 men. It was held at the Case Hall Auditorium in downtown Cleveland.
1896: Hatch Library was dedicated. It was Western Reserve University's first building solely used as a library.
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Camp Case, Mohican State Forest

1896: The cornerstone ceremonies were held for the Franklin Thomas Backus School of Law building on the corner of Adelbert Road and Circle Drive.
1911: Western Reserve University's commencement convocation was held for the first time at the newly-constructed Amasa Stone Chapel.
1932: Western Reserve University's commencement convocation was held for the first time at the newly-constructed Severance Hall.

June 16
1910: Lucy Gertrude Hoffman became the first woman graduate of Western Reserve University's Dental School, eighteen years after the School's establishment.
1915: Mather House was dedicated. It opened as a dorm for female undergraduate students.
1921: Hannah Mirsky became the first woman graduate of Western Reserve University's Franklin Thomas Backus School of Law.
1926: Florence Ellinwood Allen, Ohio Supreme Court Justice and a graduate of Western Reserve University's College for Women in 1904, gave the first of her three commencement speeches at WRU's College for Women.
1927: Herbert M. Knowles was the only member of the first graduating class of Western Reserve University's Cleveland College.
1948: Carl Wittke, long time Western Reserve University faculty member and dean of the Graduate School, spoke for the first of sixteen times at a WRU commencement ceremony.

June 17
1895: The cornerstone was laid for Hatch Library. It was Western Reserve University's first building solely used as a library.
1909: The cornerstone of Amasa Stone Chapel was laid. The chapel was named in honor of Cleveland businessman Amasa Stone.
1996: The Kelvin Smith Library officially opened.

June 18
1895: Mary Noyes Colvin, who in 1895 became the first woman to receive a Ph.D. from Western Reserve University, was the main speaker at WRU's commencement.
1993: The Richard F. Celeste Biomedical Research Building was dedicated.

June 19
1888: Western Reserve University Trustees approved an affiliation with the Western Reserve School of Design for Women, which was renamed the School of Art.
1898: Dedication ceremonies for Eldred Hall were held. Eldred Hall was the first student union of Adelbert College.

June 21
1897: Cornerstone was laid for Eldred Hall. Eldred Hall was the first student union of Adelbert College.

June 23
1991:
Fire gutted Adelbert Hall,
the oldest campus building. It took two years to rebuild the historic structure.
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June 24
1994: The Health Sciences Center was renamed the Louis Stokes Health Sciences Center.

June 26
1872: Carroll Cutler was inaugurated as Western Reserve College's fourth president.

June 28
1876: Viola Smith Buell became the first woman to graduate from Western Reserve College, fifty years after its establishment.

June 30
1949: The School of Pharmacy at Western Reserve University closed.


On This Day in CWRU HIstory: July
On This Day in CWRU HIstory: August
On This Day in CWRU History: September
On This Day in CWRU History: October
On This Day in CWRU History: November
On This Day in CWRU History: December
On This Day in CWRU History: January
On This Day in CWRU History: February
On This Day in CWRU History: March
On This Day in CWRU History: April
On This Day in CWRU History: May

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May 29, 2018

Western Reserve University School of Pharmacy

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While CWRU has 3 health related schools at the present time (School of Dental Medicine, School of Medicine, and Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing), there was also a School of Pharmacy from 1908 to 1949. This School was first established in 1882 as the Cleveland School of Pharmacy by the Cleveland Pharmaceutical Association. According to a history of the School by Edward D. Davy in 1941, E. A Schellentrager, a retail pharmacist was the “originator of the idea of formal training for prospective pharmacists.” Schellentrager became the first president of the School serving until 1905. The School was chartered under the laws of Ohio as the Cleveland School of Pharmacy on 12/20/1886. The incorporators were Schellentrager, Joseph H. Peck, P. I. Spenzer, G. L. Heckler, George Keiffer, and Henry W. Stecher.

The School became affiliated with Western Reserve University in 1908. It was renamed the Cleveland School of Pharmacy of Western Reserve University (WRU) in 1917. The School closed in 1949.

Curriculum
In the first year, 1 lecture was offered each week for 20 weeks. It was to be a practical elementary course in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Nathan Rosenwasser was the lecturer. In the second year, Stecher and C. W. Kolbe were the lecturers. In the third year the course was extended to 30 lectures with optional lectures 2 evenings a week. No degrees were conferred by the School.

In 1896-1897 the curriculum was expanded to 3 years leading to the Pharmaceutical Chemist degree. There were 3 classes: freshman, junior, and senior classes.

At the time the School became part of WRU in the 1908/09 academic year, 2 degrees were offered, the Pharmaceutical Chemist (Ph.C.) and the Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph.G.). The difference in degrees depended on the high school experience of the student. Students with 1 year of a “good high school course” received the Ph.G. degree. Students who graduated from high school received the Ph.C. The 2 degrees were almost identical in the theoretical branches. The 2-year course was for full-time students and the tuition was $100 per year. The full-time course included more laboratory work. The 3-year course allowed the student time to work in a local drug store. The tuition was $65 per year.

The Doctor of Pharmacy (Phar.D.) was awarded to candidates who graduated from a “reputable school of pharmacy, who has had at least ten years of pharmaceutical experience since graduation; who presents an acceptable dissertation and who passes an examination before the Committee on Examination.”

Over time the Ph.G. degree became the 2-year degree program and Ph.C. became the 3 year program. Students were not admitted to the 2 -year course of study after the 1924/25 academic year. The Ph.C. and B.S. degrees were offered. The Ph.C. degree was not offered after 6/1935, leaving the B.S. as the only degree offered. Graduate work was possible through the Graduate School.

Enrollment
Total enrollment was 76 in 1908/09. Enrollment was 130 in the last year of existence (1948/49).

Deans
The deans of the School, 1908-1949, were:
1908-1911 Henry V. Arny
1911-1912 Norman A. Dubois
1912-1913 T. Barnard Tanner
1913-1916 William C. Alpers
1916-1940 Edward Spease
1940-1941 Edward D. Davy, Acting Dean
1941-1943 Edward D. Davy
1943-1944 Franklin J. Bacon, Acting Dean
1944-1949 Arthur P. Wyss

Buildings
The School of Pharmacy was located in downtown Cleveland until 1920 when it moved to a house on Adelbert Road. The buildings used by the School included:
1882 - part of a floor of Cleveland City Hall
1900 - 2 floors of Cleveland Gas Light and Coke Company (also called the Gas Building
1910-1920 - Ohio Wesleyan Medical School building
1920-1949 - 2029/2045 Adelbert Road
1933 - Pierce Hall

In 1921 a garden of medicinal plants was established on campus under the management of the Department of Pharmacognosy. In the Spring of 1929 the garden was transferred to Squire Valleevue Farm.

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Andrew Squire in medicinal herb garden and plants and seeds harvested from the farm


Plants were cultivated for propagation (for use in the manufacturing laborary) and research. According to Davy’s history, “The School maintains research and manufacturing laboratories, where U.S.P, N.F., and special formulae preparations are made for the hospitals of Cleveland. By agreement between Western Reserve University and the University Hospitals of Cleveland the Head of the Department of Pharmacy in the School of Pharmacy serves as the Directing Pharmacist of the University Hospitals, and the pharmacists in the hospitals become members of the teaching staff of the School. Students are required to take a course in hospital pharmacy under the direction of the hospitals pharmacists. An advanced course in hospital pharmacy is open to students who in the opinion of the faculty show special aptitude and ability.”

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Pharmacy students in laboratory, 1913

Records of the School and more information about the School of Pharmacy is available in the University Archives.

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May 01, 2018

On This Day in CWRU History: May

Below is month eleven of our list of significant dates in CWRU’s history. The list is not comprehensive and we invite suggestions of other dates to include.

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Campus anti-war protests, May 1970

May 2
1908 Western Reserve University students held their first mock political convention at Gray's Armory. The convention nominated Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin for U.S. president.
1948 Case Institute of Technology's new student union, Tomlinson Hall, was dedicated.
1970 An open meeting was held to protest expansion of the Vietman War to Cambodia.

May 3
1970 Demonstrators occupied Yost Hall to protest the campus ROTC program headquartered in the building.

May 4
1970 Student Vietnam war protesters blocked the intersection of Euclid Avenue and Adelbert Road. That night a candlelight procession was held in memory of the Kent State student killed and wounded earlier that day.
1971 Boxer Muhammad Ali spoke at Adelbert Gym. The lecture was sponsored by the UUSG Speakers Bureau and the Adelbert College Junior Class.
1985 Completely renovated as part of the Mather Quad restoration effort, Guilford House was rededicated.

May 5
1970 Faculty Senate 4-1/2 hour meeting debated continuation of the ROTC program and other issues related to anti-war protests. Radio station WRUW broadcast the proceedings.

May 6
1961 Groundbreaking ceremonies were held for Western Reserve University's Mather I dormitory complex, consisting of Cutter, Smith, Taft, and Taplin Houses, and Stone Dining Hall.
1970 A ROTC supply room in the basement of Yost Hall was firebombed. Damage was $5,000.

May 7
1971 Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University's baseball teams faced off in the last meeting of these two schools in intercollegiate sports. WRU beat Case 7-5 in 10 innings.

May 8
1917 Lakeside Base Hospital Number Four, comprised of 256 men and women, including faculty from the School of Medicine, sailed for Europe one month after the United States entered World War I.
1971 Buffalo Bob Smith, the star of the "Howdy Doody Show," appeared at Emerson Gym. Smith told behind-the-scene anecdotes, showed film of the 10th anniversary show, and led the audience in singing old Howdy Doody songs. Tickets were $1.50.
1986 Trustees approved establishment of the Center on Regional Economic Issues in the Weatherhead School of Management.

May 9
1968 Trustee Executive Committee approved establishment of the Biomedical Engineering Department.

May 10
1961 Groundbreaking ceremonies were held at Case Institute of Technology for the Olin Laboratory for Materials.

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May 11
1903 Western Reserve University Trustees established the Library School.
1904 Charles S. Howe was inaugurated as Case School of Applied Science's second president.
1948 Case Institute of Technology students held their first mock political convention, nominating Senator Arthur Vandenburg of Michigan as candidate for U.S. president.

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May 12
1994 Former First Lady Rosalynn Carter spoke at the Florence Cellar Gerontology Conference, sponsored by the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing.

May 13
1885 Laura Kerr Axtell donated property worth $125,000 in the city of Cleveland, as well as the township of Rockport, to endow the Kerr Professorship of Mathematics, the first named professorship at Case School of Applied Science.
1972 The Health Sciences Center complex, containing new and expanded homes for the Schools of Nursing, Dentistry, and Medicine, was dedicated.

May 14
1965 Retiring CIT President Glennan was honored by a surprise tribute organized by students at
Students Salute Keith Glennan Day.

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May 15
1928 Western Reserve University Trustees established the School of Education.
1969 When an attempt by 200 protesters to occupy the President's office in Adelbert Main was thwarted by counter demonstrators, the protesters, primarily students, proceeded to occupy Haydn Hall for four days.

May 16
1999 Former astronaut and U. S. Senator John Glenn spoke at CWRU's spring commencement convocation.

May 17
1946 All Hudson Relay teams were disqualified for using cars instead of running the race.

May 18
1920 Following the re-opening of the School of Medicine to women, female students established the Theta chapter of the Nu Sigma Phi medical sorority.
1961 Case Institute of Technology formally dedicated the Library-Humanities Building. In 1966, it was renamed the Lester M. and Ruth P. Sears Library-Humanities Building.
2003 Geraldine Ferraro, who in 1984 became the first woman to run on a U.S. presidential ticket of a major party, gave the address at CWRU's main commencement ceremony.

May 19
1967 Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University purchased Fenway Motor Inn, renamed University House, to provide housing for married and single graduate students.

May 21
1948 T. Keith Glennan was inaugurated as Case Institute of Technology's fourth president.
1957 Dedication ceremonies were held for Case Institute of Technology's second student dormitory, Pardee Hall.
1969 CWRU's University Undergraduate Student Government Assembly held its first meeting.
1969 CWRU Trustees approved phase one of a joint music program with Cleveland Institute of Musice, to begin in fall 1969.
2000 Stephanie Tubbs Jones, Ohio Congresswoman and 1971 Flora Stone Mather College and 1974 Law graduate, spoke at CWRU's School of Law commencement ceremony. Ferid Murad, a 1998 Nobel Prize laureate and a 1965 Western Reserve University graduate, spoke at CWRU's School of Medicine commencement ceremony.

May 22
1894 School of Medicine became the first medical college in Ohio to require four years of study to earn the M.D. degree.
1896 Western Reserve University and Case School of Applied Science held their first Intercollegiate Field Day in track. Held at the Cleveland Driving Park, WRU beat Case, 74-54.
1985 The first outdoor, University-wide, CWRU commencement ceremony was held.

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May 23
1958 In use since 1901, the Case Institute of Technology athletic field was renamed Van Horn Field, in honor of former Case faculty member Frank "the Count" Van Horn.

May 24
1916 In an early use of the transcontinental telephone line, attendees at the Case School of Applied Science alumni dinner spoke via telephone with Case alumni at simultaneous gatherings in New York City and San Francisco.
1957 Dedication ceremonies were held at Case Institute of Technology for the newly completed Sam W. Emerson Physical Education Center.
1990 The Staff Advisory Council, CWRU's first, fully representative staff organization, held its first official meeting.

May 26
1911 Case School of Applied Science competed for the first time in varsity tennis by participating in the Ohio Intercollegiate Tennis Tournament held at Ohio Wesleyan University.
1951 Case Institute of Technology formally dedicated its first campus dormitory, Yost Hall.

May 27
1981 Dr. Benjamin Spock, noted pediatrician and former Western Reserve University faculty member, gave the address at CWRU's School of Medicine commencement ceremony.

May 28
1931 Case School of Applied Science's commencement convocation was held for the first time at the newly-constructed Severance Hall.
1970 Polykarp Kusch, 1955 Nobel Prize laureate, and a 1931 graduate of Case Institute of Technology, spoke at CIT's commencement ceremony.

May 29
1891 Western Reserve University Trustees established the School of Law.

May 31
1928 Nearly 50 years after its establishment, the Case School of Applied Science graduated its first woman, Edith Paula Chartkoff, who received an M.S. in Metallurgy.

On This Day in CWRU HIstory: July
On This Day in CWRU HIstory: August
On This Day in CWRU History: September
On This Day in CWRU History: October
On This Day in CWRU History: November
On This Day in CWRU History: December
On This Day in CWRU History: January
On This Day in CWRU History: February
On This Day in CWRU History: March
On This Day in CWRU History: April

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