February 27, 2019

African-American History Month Spotlight: Ruby B. Pernell

Ruby B. Pernell was a professor at the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences (MSASS), 1968-1982. She was Grace Longwell Coyle Professor Emeritus of Social Work from 7/1/1982 until her death in 2001. When appointed Acting Dean of MSASS in 1973-1974, she became the first African-American woman dean at CWRU.

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Ruby B. Pernell, 1981

Pernell was born 2/21/1917 in Birmingham, Alabama and grew up in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She received the B.S. in Biology (1939) and the M.S. in Social Administration (1944) from the University of Pittsburgh and her Ph.D. from the University of London, England (1959). Prior to her work at CWRU, Pernell was a Program Coordinator at Soho Community House in Pittsburgh, Professor of Social Work at the University of Minnesota, and Social Welfare Attache at the U. S. Embassy in New Delhi, India. She was a visiting Professor at the University of Denver, Atlanta University, and University of Washington.

When Dr. Pernell came to CWRU in 1968 it was as the Grace Longwell Coyle Professor in Social Work. She was offered the position in 12/1966 but wanted to fulfill her contract as Social Welfare Attache at the U. S. Embassy in India - which was completed in 2/1968. As MSASS Dean Herman Stein wrote, “The professor so named is to be one who could add to social work knowledge, who has breadth of understanding and interest, who is oriented to social philosophy and attuned to the major social problems of our society.” In accepting the offer Ruby Pernell wrote, “I really am overwhelmed and humbled by the idea that any one would think I could fittingly fill a chair commemorating Grace Coyle.”

Her scholarly interests were curriculum development, program administration, and international social welfare. In her year as Acting Dean, MSASS introduced new facets into the curriculum by adding a study sequence on Management of Human Services which was concerned with management of social agencies and program direction and planning. The School also started the first phase of a new plan for crediting work done in undergraduate social work programs. MSASS and the Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences cooperated to launch the new Bachelor of Science in Applied Social Sciences at Western Reserve College (the university’s undergraduate liberal arts college). Students in the new degree program were prepared to work in areas of manpower training, social services, corrections and community organizations. A part-time program for employed social workers to work toward their master’s degrees was in development.

In addition to her work as a faculty member at MSASS, Dr. Pernell served on the CWRU Afro-American Studies Program Advisory Committee and was the chair for several years.

She worked on social policy issues in India, the Sudan, Egypt, and Jamaica. Dr. Pernell served as consultant to several U. S. government agencies such as the U. S. Agency for International Development and the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. She published a number of articles on social group work, cross-cultural and international social welfare as well as other social welfare subjects.

Dr. Pernell was a founder of the Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups. She was active in the Council on Social Work Education, the National Association of Social Workers, the International Association of Schools of Social Work and the U. S. Committee of the International Council on Social Welfare. She served on the Peace Corps Advisory Committee and on the boards of various community groups and agencies such as the Cleveland International Program, the North Area YWCA, the YWCA of East Cleveland and the Camp Fire Girls of Greater Cleveland. She served as consultant nationally and internationally. In 1997 Ruby Pernell received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Association of Social Workers Region III.

On 2/4/2001 Ruby Pernell died at home at the age of 83.

You can read past CWRU African-American History Month recollections from 2018, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, and 2011.

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January 30, 2019

University Student Newspapers Now Online

The University Archives is happy to announce that nine student newspaper titles from the collection have been digitized and are available for online use. Each issue is full-text searchable and PDF copies are available for free download. The titles include:

Western Reserve Souvenir (1862, 1864)
Western Reserve Collegian (1863)
The Adelbert (1889/90-1902/03)
The Case Tech (1903/04-1979/80)
The Reserve Weekly (1903/04-1937/38)
Cleveland College Life (1928/29-1952/53)
The Reserve Tribune (1938/39-1968/69)
The Mather Record (1939/40-1951/52)
The Observer (1969/70-2009/10) Later issues of The Observer are already available online.

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Page one of the Western Reserve Souvenir, December 1862

As our users are well aware, the student newspapers provide a rich source of information about student and university life.

Kelvin Smith Library contracted with DL Consulting to complete this project. The University Archives staff and students digitized 991 issues numbering 13,283 pages. Hudson Archival digitized the remaining issues from the microfilm copies. Veridian provided article segmentation and created PDF files for each issue. While optical character recognition software was run on each issue, some errors may have occurred. No corrections to the text were made. You can become a text corrector by registering on the site.

We are excited about this new online resource provided to the university community and beyond. Please explore and enjoy. You are welcome to send feedback to archives@case.edu.

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January 28, 2019

The One Hundredth Anniversary of the Michelson-Morley Experiment

In 1987, CWRU celebrated the centennial of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Albert A. Michelson was a physicist at the Case School of Applied Science and Edward W. Morley was a chemist at Western Reserve University. In their revolutionary 1887 experiment, Michelson and Morley used a device called an interferometer to measure the interference properties of light waves. Their goal was to determine how the speed of light would be affected by the directional flow of “luminiferous aether,” which was a substance that was believed to transmit light throughout space. Albert A. Michelson designed the interferometer to measure the difference between the speed of light traveling in the direction of the “aether wind,” and the speed of light traveling in the opposite direction. The Michelson-Morley experiment found that there was no substantial difference in the measurements of the speed of light, which ultimately proved that “luminiferous aether” does not exist. This groundbreaking discovery has been described as marking the birth of modern physics, and led to the development of other scientific theories, including Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, which transformed our understanding of space and time.

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Model of the Michelson-Morley Interferometer, circa 1975

The Michelson-Morley Centennial Celebration, entitled “Light, Space, and Time – A Cleveland Festival,” took place at CWRU and in the surrounding area from April to December 1987. The celebration kicked off with the opening ceremonies at Severance Hall on 04/24/1987, in which the annual Michelson-Morley Award was presented to internationally renowned scientists, Robert H. Dicke and George A. Olah. From 04/24/1987 to 04/25/1987, a symposium was held on campus, entitled “The Legacy of Edward W. Morley: 100 Years of Chemistry at Case Western Reserve University.” It included lectures on chemical research given by twelve distinguished alumni, former faculty, and current faculty from CWRU.

Throughout the spring, summer, and fall, several exhibits, lectures, musical performances, and other symposia in honor of the centennial of the Michelson-Morley experiment took place on campus and in the greater Cleveland area:

From 04/25/1987 to 12/31/1987, an exhibit entitled “The Atom: Peril and Promise,” was available to the public at the Cleveland Health Education Museum. The exhibit examined the beneficial and harmful aspects of radiation. It included photographs of color drawings and paintings by survivors of the nuclear blasts at Hiroshima and Nagasaki that took place at the end of World War II. Another exhibit, entitled “The Michelson-Morley Experiment of 1887: American Science Comes of Age,” was presented at the Western Reserve Historical Society from 04/26/1987 to 09/30/1987. It included photographs, monographs, drawings, and notes by Albert A. Michelson, letters from Edward W. Morley and Albert Einstein, and a full-scale replica of the Michelson-Morley experiment constructed by CWRU students.

As part of the Frontiers in Chemistry lecture series on campus, several Nobel Laureates were invited to give guest lectures in honor of the centennial of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Manfred Eigen delivered a lecture entitled, “Evolutionary Biotechnology” on 08/27/1987, Herbert C. Brown conducted a lecture called, “A General Asymmetric Synthesis via Chiral Organoboranes” on 10/01/1987, and Derek Barton spoke about “The Invention of Organic Chemical Reactions” on 10/15/1987.

The one hundredth anniversary of the Michelson-Morley experiment was also commemorated through art. During the centennial celebration, a light sculpture entitled “Light Path Crossing,” by artist Dale Eldred, was installed on the roof of Crawford Hall. The sculpture has a large diffraction grating that separates and exhibits vibrant colors, in honor of the experiment. On 10/28/1987, the Cleveland Institute of Music Chamber Orchestra performed two works commissioned especially for the Michelson-Morley Centennial Celebration at the Cleveland Museum of Art. A musical piece for solo violin with synthesizer, harp, and percussion was performed in honor of Albert A. Michelson. In honor of Edward W. Morley, a piece for organ and chamber orchestra was performed. In addition, from 10/29/1987 to 10/31/1987, the Cleveland Orchestra presented a symphonic work by Philip Glass, that was commissioned especially for the Michelson-Morley Centennial Celebration, at Severance Hall.

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Poster for the Modern Physics in America Symposium, 1987

Several scientific symposia took place on campus in October 1987, beginning with a Symposium on Science, Arts, and Humanities on 10/10/1987, in which Philip Morrison of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other renowned speakers discussed the interrelationships among these different fields of study. From 10/21/1987 to 10/23/1987, the “Harland G. Wood Symposium in Biomedical Sciences” took place, and included a Merton F. Utter Memorial Lecture by Nobel Laureate David Baltimore. A symposium on “The Michelson Era in American Science, 1870-1930,” took place from 10/28/1987 to 10/29/1987, and included presentations on the history and philosophy of science by America’s leading historians in science and technology, as well as a keynote address by author Daniel Kevles. To round out the month of October, the last symposium of the Michelson-Morley Centennial Celebration, entitled “Modern Physics in America,” took place from 10/30/1987 to 10/31/1987. More than 1,000 people attended this symposium, and it included lectures by several Nobel Laureates: Hans A. Bethe, Philip W. Anderson, Arthur L. Schawlow, Ivar Giaever, Murray Gell-Mann, and Kenneth G. Wilson.

For more information about the Michelson-Morley experiment, and the Michelson-Morley Centennial Celebration, please consult the University Archives. In addition, the blog post, Namesakes – Morley Chemical Laboratory and Edward W. Morley, provides a brief biography of Edward W. Morley, and includes a link to more information about the Michelson-Morley experiment.

Written by Julia Teran

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December 21, 2018

School of Medicine Mini-History

In celebration of the 175th anniversary of the School of Medicine we have compiled this mini-history. A published history of the School was written for the Centennial in 1943. This mini-history just highlights a few aspects of the School’s 175 year history. The University Archives holds over 860 linear feet of records of the School. Two histories and many articles have been published about the School.

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School of Medicine Harland Goff Wood Building

The School of Medicine was established in 1843 as the Cleveland Medical College. As early as 1834-1835, WRC trustees had considered establishing a medical school.

Names
1843 - Cleveland Medical College
1844 - Cleveland Medical College renamed Medical Department of Western Reserve College (WRC)
1881 - Medical Department of WRC renamed Medical Department of Western Reserve University (WRU)
1913 - Medical Department of WRU renamed the School of Medicine of WRU

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Portrait of Jared Potter Kirtland

Deans
1843-3/1844 and 2/1861-5/1873 - John Lang Cassels
3/1844-2/1846 and 10/1846-2/1861 - John Delamater
2/1846-10/1846 - Jared Potter Kirtland
5/1873-7/1881 - John Bennitt
7/1881-3/1883 - William Johnston Scott
3/1883-9/1893 - Gustav Carl Erich Weber
9/1893-5/1895 - Isaac Newton Himes
5/1895-6/1900 - Hunter Holmes Powell
6/1900-1912 - Benjamin Love Milliken
1912-11/1928 - Carl August Hamann
11/1928-7/1944 - Torald Hermann Sollman
4/1945-8/1959 - Joseph Treloar Wearn
9/1959-8/1966 - Douglas Danford Bond
9/1966-6/1980 - Frederick Chapman Robbins
7/1980-7/1989 - Richard E. Behrman
8/1989-7/1990 - Howard S. Sudak, Acting Dean
7/1990-8/1995 - Neil S. Cherniack
9/1995-6/2002 - Nathan Berger (Interim Dean 9/1995-8/1996)
7/2002-3/2003 - Jerold Goldberg, Acting Dean
4/2003-9/2006 - Ralph I. Horwitz
9/2006-6/2020 - Pamela Bowes Davis (Interim Dean 9/2006-9/2007)

Buildings
While WRC was located in Hudson, Ohio, the Medicial Department was located in downtown Cleveland. The School moved to University Circle in 1924. It was part of the new medical campus which included the new Medical School building (now called the Wood Building), Animal House, Institute of Pathology and University Hospitals' buildings: Lakeside Hospital, Hanna Pavilion, Nurses’ Dormitories (Robb, Mather, Lowman, Harvey). A new Power House was built to service the Medical School buildings and University Hospitals. The dedication of the new Medical School building was in conjunction with the inauguration of Robert E. Vinson as President of Western Reserve University.

1843-1846 rented quarters in the Mechanics Block, southeast corner of Ontario and Prospects streets
1846-1885 Medical School, southeast corner of East 9th Street and St. Clair Avenue
1887-1924 Medical School, southeast corner of East 9th Street and St. Clair Avenue (same site as previous)
1898-1924 Physiological Laboratory, next to main Medical School building at East 9th and St. Clair Avenue
1908-1924 H. K. Cushing Laboratory, East 9th Street and St. Clair Avenue
1924-current use: Harland Goff Wood Building
1924-1943?: Animal House, behind Wood Building
1929-current use: Institute of Pathology
1930-?: Animal House, between Wood Building and first Animal House
1962-current use: Joseph Treloar Wearn Laboratory for Medical Research
1971-current use: Frederick C. Robbins Building (East Wing)
1971-current use: Lester M. and Ruth P. Sears Administration Tower
1993-current use: Richard F. Celeste Biomedical Research Building
2003-current use: Harland Goff Wood Building Research Tower (addition to Wood Building)
Coming in 2019: Health Education Campus

Affiliations
The School has had affiliations with numerous hospitals over the years including: MetroHealth Hospitals System (City Hospital, County Hospital, Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Sunny Acres, Highland View Hospital), Mt. Sinai Medical Center, St. Luke’s Hospital, University Hospitals of Cleveland (including Lakeside Hospital, Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, MacDonald Hospital, Hanna House, Hanna Pavilion), Veteran’s Administration Hospital, Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

Early Education (taken from Significant Dates in the History of the School of Medicine, Western Reserve University by Frederick C. Waite)
The first classes began 11/1/1843. This first session was 16 weeks. In 1846 two sessions of 16 weeks each was required.

In 1888 graded courses of three years was mandatory. “Required individual laboratory work in Physiology established, the first in the west, and probably the first in the United States.”

In 1895 the optional four year courses established. The first four year class graduated in 1899 (5 men).

In 1901 entrance requirement of three years work in a college of arts and sciences became effective.

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Students celebrate at Match Day, 1987

Much has been written about the 1952 Medical School curriculum revision which was widely adopted by other medical schools. For more information you can read the Greer Williams book, Western Reserve’s Experiment in Medical Education and Its Outcome. This curriculum has been revised over time and in 2006 the School introduced the Western Reserve 2 (WR2) Curriculum.

The School of Medicine entered into an agreement with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in 2002 to form the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of CWRU. This 5-year program trains physician investigators. The first class graduated in 2009.

Absorbed Schools
In 1910 the School absorbed the Medical Department of Ohio Wesleyan University (also known as the Cleveland College of Physicians and Surgeons). The Medical Department of Ohio Wesleyan (1896-1910) was the successor school of several rival Cleveland-based medical schools, including the Charity Hospital Medical College (1865-1869) and the Medical Department of the University of Wooster (1869-1896).

Alumni
Alumni of the School of Medicine have taken their knowledge around the world and served in a number of capacities beyond their role as physicians. Such roles include missionaries, educators, researchers, military, and government service (such as Surgeon General and head of Centers for Disease Control).

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Professor J. J. MacLeod with students, ca. 1910

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