August 15, 2018

Mini-History of the School of Education

In her 1938 “History of the School of Education,” Helen Harris Graebner wrote,” Perhaps the history of the present School of Education of Western Reserve University could best be expressed by a jig-saw puzzle - so many elements have gone into its making and so complicated does its story seem.”

Ms. Graebner was absolutely correct. The simplest part of the story is that Western Reserve University had a School of Education from 1928/29 through 1944/45. The more complicated antecedents are outlined in the timeline below.

EducationStudentLife_1937.jpg L'Annee_1937.jpg
School of Education students depicted in 1937 yearbook, L'Annee

Some Key Dates
1874 Cleveland Normal Training School was established by the Cleveland Board of Education.
1894 Cleveland Kindergarten Training School was established.
1915 A joint summer program between WRU and the Cleveland School of Education was established.
1916 Education Department was established in the College for Women.
1919 Cleveland Normal Training School was renamed the Cleveland School of Education.
1920 The joint summer program was renamed the Senior Teacher's College of Western Reserve University and the Cleveland School of Education.
1922 Cleveland Kindergarten Training School was renamed Kindergarten-Primary Training School.
1927 Department of Nursery-Kindergarten-Primary Training was established by WRU after the program was transferred by the Cleveland Day Nursery and Free Kindergarten Association of Cleveland.
1928 School of Education was established by WRU, combining the College for Women Education Department, the Nursery-Kindergarten-Primary Training Department, the Cleveland School of Education, and the Senior Teacher’s College of WRU and the Cleveland School of Education.
1945 School of Education closed.
1979 The successor Department of Education closed.

In its early years the school offered three curricula: Kindergarten-Primary, Intermediate Grades, Junior-Senior High School Grades. Over time additional curricula were added: Art Education, Music Education, Commercial Education, Industrial Arts, and Nursery School. During the early 1930s a program in Library Service for Children was offered with the School of Library Science.

Degrees Offered and Awarded
In 1928/29 the school offered both 2-year and 3-year diplomas and 4-year degree programs. From 1928/29 through 1944/45 the degree offered was the Bachelor of Science. The diploma programs ended in the mid-1930s.
Master’s and doctoral education degrees (Ed.D., M.A.Ed., Ed.M.) were offered by the School of Graduate Studies.
From 1929 through 1945 the school awarded 2,151 degrees, ranging from 51 in 1929 to 209 in 1939.

1928/29-1935/36: $250/year
1936/37-1942/43: $300/year
1943/44-1944/45: $10/credit hour

From 1928/29 through 1944/45 enrollment in the school totaled 10,202, ranging from 260 in 1935/36 to 1,139 in 1938/39. Enrollment peaked at over 1,000 in four years 1936/37-1939/40.

1928-1933 Charles W. Hunt
1933-1945 Harry N. Irwin

1928/29-1935/36: 2060 Stearns Road
1936/37-1944/45: 11217 Bellflower Road

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August 03, 2018

The 1975-1976 Commemorative Year: CWRU’s 150th Anniversary

During the 1975-1976 academic year, CWRU celebrated its sesquicentennial, commemorating 150 years since the State of Ohio granted the charter to establish Western Reserve College in Hudson, Ohio on 2/7/1826. Since 1976 marked both the sesquicentennial, and the United States Bicentennial, the Board of Trustees designated the academic year 1975-1976 as the university’s “commemorative year.” In honor of the occasion, the CWRU community celebrated with a year-long series of events.

The festivities kicked off during the fall of 1975. On 10/19/1975, ceremonies celebrating the founding of Western Reserve College took place at Western Reserve Academy in Hudson, Ohio. Known as the “Hudson Pilgrimage,” this event included a walking tour of the Academy and historical sites in Hudson, a Glee Club musical performance, and a picnic. The Hudson Pilgrimage was followed by the Commemorative Year Opening Festival on 10/25/1975, which included a ceremony to dedicate the banners for CWRU’s Schools and Colleges that took place at Amasa Stone Chapel. The dedication ceremony consisted of classical music performances, the presentation of the bicentennial flag, an address on the evolution of the university given by Chancellor Emeritus, John Schoff Millis, the presentation of the banners, and an address by President Louis Toepfer.

Dedication of the Banners

The recognition of the commemorative year was not exclusive to Cleveland. In honor of the sesquicentennial, President Toepfer invited several nationally prominent individuals in higher education and national affairs to assist the CWRU community in reflecting upon the university’s and the nation’s past and future by serving as guest lecturers. One such individual was James B. Reston, a well-known New York Times columnist, who was invited to serve as a visiting Sesquicentennial Professor from 11/10/1975 to 11/21/1975. In addition, part of the year’s celebrations included events for alumni and friends that were held in key cities across the country in order to highlight the role that CWRU played in American education for 150 years, not only in Ohio, but across the nation. One such event was a reception hosted by President Toepfer and his wife, Alice Toepfer, for all alumni and Congressional representatives in Washington D.C. at the United States Botanical Garden on 10/20/1975. Another event was a Sesquicentennial Weekend for alumni and friends that took place at The York Club in New York City from 11/14/1975 to 11/16/1975. The weekend included a dinner and dance on Friday night, and a symposium on Saturday and Sunday that was conducted by key faculty members, and focused on Science and Technology, Medicine, and The Renaissance Man. Other cities across the country that held similar events for CWRU alumni and friends included Pittsburgh, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, Akron, Youngstown, Canton, Toledo, Dayton, and Philadelphia.

President Louis A. Toepfer

Activities and events in honor of the commemorative year continued into 1976, beginning with a Festival of Arts and Sciences that was held on campus in January and February. The festival featured lectures from prominent faculty members, a bicentennial exhibit at Mather Gallery, musical presentations, a winter dance program, art history programs, and a theatrical performance. The sesquicentennial celebration also included the recognition of Charter Day, to commemorate the day when the university was founded. Held on 2/15/1976, the Charter Day Convocation included brunch for the university governing boards and special guests, the presentation of the University medal and new University Fellows, and introduced the new history of CWRU. This important work was written by Professor Emeritus of History, C. H. Cramer, who delivered the keynote address for the convocation, entitled “Reflections on a Sesquicentennial.”

Charter Day Convocation

Discussions regarding the creation of an official institutional history began after Federation in 1967. To that end, the first CWRU president, Robert Morse, outlined a project to write such a history, which was recommended by the University Chancellor and approved by the trustees. When he assumed the presidency in 1970, President Toepfer continued the project. In 1972, Secretary of the University Carolyn Neff and University Archivist Ruth Helmuth recommended that the history should be published to coincide with the university sesquicentennial, and they recommended Professor Cramer as the most suitable historian to complete this work. Throughout the early 1970s, President Toepfer actively supported Cramer’s efforts by encouraging professors from various departments across campus to use their knowledge of departmental histories to aid in his research. Carolyn Neff oversaw the project to completion in time for the sesquicentennial by serving as the administrative coordinator.

Clarence H. "Red" Cramer

Commemorative year celebrations continued into the spring of 1976, beginning with a Festival of American Jazz in March, in which concerts were given by area colleges’ jazz bands. On 4/28/1976, Alice Toepfer hosted a walking tour of CWRU campus buildings, ranging from Adelbert to Gund Hall. The tour began at Amasa Stone Chapel, and included tea in the Mather Gallery, which housed an exhibit on the sesquicentennial that featured the University Print Club Collection and pieces of Victorian furniture from Guilford House.

In early May 1976, the spring term ended with the University Showcase, which included alumni reunions, departmental open houses, University Circle tours, an antique car show, a flea market, and the Hudson Relay. In addition to the traditional Hudson Relay, a new event, the first annual Western Reserve Marathon, took place on 5/9/1976, and was sponsored by CWRU in honor of its 150th birthday, in cooperation with Revco Drug Centers, Inc. The marathon was run over the challenging and historic Hudson Relay course, which stretches 26 miles and 385 yards between Hudson and Cleveland. It was also considered an official United States Bicentennial event, and was open to all amateur athletes who carried a valid AAU (Amateur Athletic Union) registration card and a current medical certificate. Everyone who finished the Western Reserve Marathon was given a souvenir award, and running shirts were provided to all official entrants.

Hudson Relay, 1976

During the commemorative year, CWRU enrolled nearly 8,000 students in two undergraduate colleges, a graduate school, and seven professional schools: Applied Social Sciences, Dentistry, Law, Library Science, Management, Medicine, and Nursing. In order to continue to improve upon the university’s mission “to prepare its students for a life of learning and professional responsibility by advancing knowledge and understanding through scholarship and research,” CWRU took an important step in addressing the future in honor of the sesquicentennial by announcing a $215-million capital campaign in 1976, called the Resources campaign, to raise funds for endowment and operations support. By the end of its five-year timeline in 1981, one year after President Toepfer’s retirement, the campaign goal was reached, and slightly exceeded.

For more information about the sesquicentennial and commemorative year events, please consult the University Archives. In addition, the digital exhibit “180 Events from 180 Years” on the Archives' website provides a useful timeline of CWRU history, and was created to celebrate the 180th anniversary in 2006. We look forward to celebrating the university’s bicentennial in 2026!

Written by Julia Teran

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July 31, 2018

Faculty involvement in the community - 1968

Many reflections and commemorations have been taking place this year as it is 50 years since the events of 1968. Here is a look back at how faculty members at CWRU were involved in several community related activities in 1968.

Faculty Families Needed to Tutor in Hough - reads a heading in the 5/3/1968 Faculty Announcements.
“Faculty and their families are needed to tutor children in the Hough area for this spring and summer. The Cleveland Tutorial Project has a waiting list of over 300 elementary to high school age students who have asked for tutors. The tutor is matched with one tutee; the tutor selects the age level and subjects in which he would like to tutor. The actual tutoring takes place in a church or recreation center near the tutee’s home one night a week.

“Age is no real barrier - a professor can tutor as well as his 13-year-old son. CTP would like to encourage more faculty families to participate. As a chemistry professor whose entire family has become involved in the project comments, ‘The rewards are presumably the same for tutors of all ages. For us parents, who are teachers anyhow, there is the luxury of devoting full attention to a single student, and in marshaling all our resourcefulness to deal with the unfolding responses...’”

The Poor People’s Campaign - the midwest caravan was scheduled to arrive in Cleveland Saturday, 5/11/1968 on its trip to Washington, D.C. Faculty and students were sought to volunteer to help the week of 5/13. “The response of those faculty offering to house the members of the march has been excellent.” Volunteers also donated food, performed office work and served as guides.

Cleveland: Now! - from 5/24 to 8/9, faculty, staff, and students contributed $12,900 to the Cleveland: NOW! campaign. As reported in the 5/24/1968 Faculty Announcements, “Although the University has long had a policy of soliciting employees for only one fund drive, United Appeal, each year, President Morse has endorsed the Cleveland: NOW! appeal and is asking members of the faculty and staff to support the fund drive.

Salaried employees were asked to give one day’s pay and hourly employees were being asked to give one hour’s pay. “The future of the University and the future of the city of Cleveland are closely linked. The Cleveland: Now! campaign is the first major step in getting Cleveland rolling.” On Tuesday, 8/6, Provost Alan R. Moritz presented Mayor Carl B. Stokes with a check for $12,900.

Upward Bound Program (a pre-college program for low-income and potential first-generation college students) - faculty members met informally with small groups of Upward Bound students to share information regarding their particular areas of specialization. Faculty members could also work with Upward Bound summer teachers in organizing learning experiences.

In January 1968 President Morse announced the creation of the University Urban Affairs Committee. The functions of the committee were: to review proposals seeking interdepartmental cooperation on problems of teaching, research, or service programs related to urban affairs; to act as clearinghouse of information about all academic projects within the university pertaining to urban affairs; to initiate and develop within the university interdepartmental research, service or educational activities appropriate to University’s increasing role in the urban field. The committee’s duties were refined throughout the course of the year. Louis A. Toepfer, then dean of the Law School, became chair in August and was also temporary director of the newly formed Office of Community Affairs.

As reported in Faculty Announcements, President Morse stated, “It is a fact of life that urban universities can only realize their goals and ambitions as educational institutions if the urban areas in which they are located can solve the agonizing social and economic problems they face. Urban universities have an obligation to their communities to contribute to creative solutions to these problems.”

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July 12, 2018

Mini-History of the School of Architecture

The School of Architecture was one of several Western Reserve University schools that existed prior to becoming part of the University. It is also one of our schools that had a separate existence as a deparment after the school was closed. The sketch below outlines some of the school’s history. The focus is on 1929 till 1953, while it was a Western Reserve University school.

School of Architecture Class of 1929

Some Key Dates
1921 Cleveland Chapter of the American Institute of Architects began supporting a course in architecture
1924 Cleveland School of Architecture was incorporated
1929 Cleveland School of Architecture affiliated with Western Reserve University
6/13/1929 First degrees, Bachelor of Architecture, conferred on eight graduates, by Western Reserve University
9/17/1929 First School of Architecture classes were offered as part of Western Reserve University
1941 Cleveland School of Architecture was renamed the School of Architecture
1953 School of Architecture closed. The Department of Architecture continued almost 20 years, closing in 1972
6/10/1953 The School of Architecture’s last commencement ceremony was held, at which 15 graduates received the Bachelor of Architecture.
1929-1953 Frances R. Bacon was Dean of the School of Architecture for its entire life as a school of Western Reserve University

The 1929/30 catalog lists over 40 architecture courses, including Elements of Architecture, Cast Drawing, History of Architecture, Theory of Design, and more. Students also took classes in English, Math, Physics, and French.

Degrees Offered and Awarded
1929/30-1940/41 Bachelor of Architecture offered
1941/42-1942/43 Bachelor of Science offered
1943/44-1952/53 Bachelor of Architecture offered
1929-1953 nearly 200 undergraduate degrees were awarded by the School of Architecture.
Adelbert, Mather, and Cleveland Colleges also offered the Bachelor of Architecture degree. The Master of Arts degree in architecture was offered by the School of Graduate Studies.

Architecture students constructing models

1929/30-1945/46 $300/year with an estimated materials cost of $50
1946/47-1947/48 $12.50/credit hour
1948/49 $14/credit hour
1949/50-1952/53 $16/credit hour

1929-1953 total of 1,623 students enrolled; average of 67 annually
1943/44 low enrollment: 11 students
1948/49 high enrollment: 114 students

1927-1930 11015 Euclid Avenue
1930-1945 Garfield House at 11206 Euclid Avenue
1945-1953 Pierce Hall

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June 29, 2018

Energy Conservation on Campus - 40 years ago

In the 1970s the university was dealing with the energy crisis as were individuals at home. Amid skyrocketing costs and shortages, the university imposed measures to conserve energy. Utilities costs rose dramatically. As reported in News & Views 11/1/1974, CWRU used less energy in 1973/74 than 1972/73. “Campus facilities (excluding housing) used nearly two million fewer kilowatts of electricity, cut use of steam by some 30 million pounds, and reduced gas consumption by about 31 thousand cubic feet. These are impressive figures--until you realize that the total cost for utilities was about $60,000 higher in fiscal ‘73-’74 than a year earlier despite these substantial cutbacks. This ironic situation is explained by the major increases in the cost of energy in all forms which hit consumers, including CWRU, throughout the first half of calendar 1974.”

Utility costs continued to rise throughout the 1970s and 1978 saw the university impose strict measures in the wake of a nationwide 16 week coal strike. During the winter of 1977-1978 blizzard conditions caused the university to be closed for 2 days, believed to be the first for a snow closure since 1950. The storm caused some broken windows,roof damage and ruptured pipes, but the overall damage was less than anticipated. The university was able to operate almost normally through the winter and the coal strike because the Medical Center Company had stockpiled a sufficient amount of coal to heat the campus. Supplies of electricity were more critical. The Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company unveiled a plan to reduce consumption by 20% for individuals and institutions. On 2/14/1978 CWRU issued its first statement about voluntary energy cutbacks in News & Views. Effective Wednesday, 2/15/1978:

“1. Lights will be turned off in all rooms having a window or windows between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m.
2. All space heaters, radios and other electric devices not directly used in accomplishing work-related tasks will be turned off.
3. The University Bookstore will close at 5:00 p.m. instead of 6:00 p.m. weekdays.
4. University facilities will not be available to off-campus groups.”

Building monitors were assigned to each campus building to enforce the first 2 procedures. These were mandatory procedures that all employees were expected to comply with. In addition, some elevators were shut down and outdoor lighting cut back. The university realized approximately 18% savings from these measures by 3/9/1978. Ohio Governor James Rhodes requested all Ohioans conserve at least 25% of their normal electrical usage, leading the university to its second phase of energy reductions. According to News & Views (3/9/1978) these procedures went into effect Saturday, 3/11/1978:

“1. Libraries will begin operating with reduced hours. Specific hours will be announced next week.
2. The three campus gymnasia will be open daytime hours only.
3. Elevators in all dormitories (except high rise buildings) and many other buildings will be turned off.
4. Reductions in air handling equipment and lab hoods will be continued.
5. Lights will be turned off in most non-dormitory parking lots.
6. Non-work related electrical equipment, including coffee pots (underlined) and certain vending machines should be turned off.
7. Use of copy machines should be limited, whenever possible. Copy machines should be turned off when not in use.
8. Use of University auditoriums by off-campus groups will be canceled.”

The first phase of energy saving procedures remained in effect.

By late March the coal strike was settled. The 3/27/1978 issue of News & Views reported that CWRU did its part to reduce energy consumption during the latter 5 weeks of the strike. Use of electricity was reduced campus-wide by approximately 20-25 percent. Vice President Musselman thanked faculty, staff, and students for their cooperation during the emergency energy cutback. Musselman stated, “We learned some things during these cutbacks. We identified some areas of excessive use of electricity, where the cutbacks will become permanent parts of our ongoing conservation efforts....With the receipt of this notice Phase I and II mandatory cutbacks are cancelled. However, I want to emphasize again that conservation of energy has become a way of life and the University must continue to do its part to eliminate all excessive and unnecessary consumption of electricity. Everyone give a little thought to this fact of life, before automatically turning on lights and appliances that have been off, and perhaps not badly missed.”

All the elevators shut down during the crisis were restored to service.

Medical Center Company air pollution control device installed at the power plant in 1978. It was referred to as the Bag House.

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June 05, 2018

On This Day in CWRU History: June

Below is the last month of our list of significant dates in CWRU’s history. The list is not comprehensive and we invite suggestions of other dates to include.

June 1
1978: CWRU Trustees established the John S. Diekhoff Award for Distinguished Graduate Teaching.

June 2
1960: Mei Mei Wang became the first woman awarded a Ph.D. from the Case Institute of Technology. Dr. Wang also received her M.S. in Chemical Engineering from Case in 1958.

June 5
1939: Fred Easly Sheibley received the first Ph.D. conferred by Case School of Applied Science.
1997: The Campus Greens, location of Philip Johnson's sculpture Turning Point, was dedicated.

June 8
1905: Ambrose Swasey, longtime trustee of the Case School of Applied Science and Western Reserve University, received the honorary Doctor of Engineering degree, the first honorary degree awarded by CSAS.

June 9
1955: Millicent C. McIntosh, president, Barnard College, and dean, Columbia University received an honorary degree from Case Institute of Technology, the only woman to receive that honor.

June 10
1890: Western Reserve University and Case School of Applied Science participated in their first track meet, competing with Mt. Union and Hiram Colleges. Held at the YMCA Park in Cleveland, WRU won the meet.

June 11
1901: Haydn Hall's cornerstone was laid. Named in honor of former WRU president Hiram Haydn. Haydn Hall opened as a women's dormitory.
1908: The cornerstone for the Morley Chemistry Laboratory was laid. The building was named in honor of former WRU faculty member Edward Morley.
1911: Amasa Stone Chapel, named in honor of Cleveland businessman Amasa Stone, was dedicated.
1913: Cleveland mayor Newton D. Baker spoke at Western Reserve University's College for Women commencement ceremony. His speech was entitled, "The Place of a College for Women in a Great City."
1929: Western Reserve University Trustees approved an affiliation with the Cleveland School of Architecture.
1935: Western Reserve University Trustees renamed the School of Nursing in honor of U. S. Congresswoman Frances Payne Bolton.
Frances Payne Bolton

June 12
1923: Western Reserve University Trustees established the School of Nursing.
1935: Olive Baxter Stevens became the first woman to graduate from the School of Architecture, six years after its affiliation with Western Reserve University.

Hudson Relay, 1910

June 13
1900: The cornerstone was laid for Harkness Chapel, Western Reserve University's first chapel building. It was named in honor of Florence Harkness Severance.
1910: The Hudson Relay was run for the first time. The class of 1912 won, with a finish time of 2 hours and 1 minute.
1912: Four years after the Cleveland School of Pharmacy affiliated with Western Reserve University, Birdie Rehmer became its first woman graduate.
1934: Winfred G. Leutner was inaugurated as Western Reserve University's eighth president, and was the only alumnus to serve as president of WRU.
1961: Aaron Strauss was the first recipient of the Kent H. Smith award, awarded to the outstanding engineering senior, who "displays extraordinary qualities of leadership, character, and scholarship."
1992: Karen Horn was elected as the first woman chair of the CWRU Board of Trustees

June 14
1911: The cornerstone was laid for Flora Stone Mather Memorial Building. It became the main administration building for Flora Stone Mather College.
1929: The cornerstone for the Institute of Pathology was laid.
Camp Case
, in Mohican State Forest near Loudonville, Ohio, closed. It served as a summer survey camp for Case Institute of Technology students for 21 years.
June 15
1885: Case School of Applied Science held its first commencement, graduating 5 men. It was held at the Case Hall Auditorium in downtown Cleveland.
1896: Hatch Library was dedicated. It was Western Reserve University's first building solely used as a library.
Camp Case, Mohican State Forest

1896: The cornerstone ceremonies were held for the Franklin Thomas Backus School of Law building on the corner of Adelbert Road and Circle Drive.
1911: Western Reserve University's commencement convocation was held for the first time at the newly-constructed Amasa Stone Chapel.
1932: Western Reserve University's commencement convocation was held for the first time at the newly-constructed Severance Hall.

June 16
1910: Lucy Gertrude Hoffman became the first woman graduate of Western Reserve University's Dental School, eighteen years after the School's establishment.
1915: Mather House was dedicated. It opened as a dorm for female undergraduate students.
1921: Hannah Mirsky became the first woman graduate of Western Reserve University's Franklin Thomas Backus School of Law.
1926: Florence Ellinwood Allen, Ohio Supreme Court Justice and a graduate of Western Reserve University's College for Women in 1904, gave the first of her three commencement speeches at WRU's College for Women.
1927: Herbert M. Knowles was the only member of the first graduating class of Western Reserve University's Cleveland College.
1948: Carl Wittke, long time Western Reserve University faculty member and dean of the Graduate School, spoke for the first of sixteen times at a WRU commencement ceremony.

June 17
1895: The cornerstone was laid for Hatch Library. It was Western Reserve University's first building solely used as a library.
1909: The cornerstone of Amasa Stone Chapel was laid. The chapel was named in honor of Cleveland businessman Amasa Stone.
1996: The Kelvin Smith Library officially opened.

June 18
1895: Mary Noyes Colvin, who in 1895 became the first woman to receive a Ph.D. from Western Reserve University, was the main speaker at WRU's commencement.
1993: The Richard F. Celeste Biomedical Research Building was dedicated.

June 19
1888: Western Reserve University Trustees approved an affiliation with the Western Reserve School of Design for Women, which was renamed the School of Art.
1898: Dedication ceremonies for Eldred Hall were held. Eldred Hall was the first student union of Adelbert College.

June 21
1897: Cornerstone was laid for Eldred Hall. Eldred Hall was the first student union of Adelbert College.

June 23
Fire gutted Adelbert Hall,
the oldest campus building. It took two years to rebuild the historic structure.

June 24
1994: The Health Sciences Center was renamed the Louis Stokes Health Sciences Center.

June 26
1872: Carroll Cutler was inaugurated as Western Reserve College's fourth president.

June 28
1876: Viola Smith Buell became the first woman to graduate from Western Reserve College, fifty years after its establishment.

June 30
1949: The School of Pharmacy at Western Reserve University closed.

On This Day in CWRU HIstory: July
On This Day in CWRU HIstory: August
On This Day in CWRU History: September
On This Day in CWRU History: October
On This Day in CWRU History: November
On This Day in CWRU History: December
On This Day in CWRU History: January
On This Day in CWRU History: February
On This Day in CWRU History: March
On This Day in CWRU History: April
On This Day in CWRU History: May

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May 29, 2018

Western Reserve University School of Pharmacy


While CWRU has 3 health related schools at the present time (School of Dental Medicine, School of Medicine, and Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing), there was also a School of Pharmacy from 1908 to 1949. This School was first established in 1882 as the Cleveland School of Pharmacy by the Cleveland Pharmaceutical Association. According to a history of the School by Edward D. Davy in 1941, E. A Schellentrager, a retail pharmacist was the “originator of the idea of formal training for prospective pharmacists.” Schellentrager became the first president of the School serving until 1905. The School was chartered under the laws of Ohio as the Cleveland School of Pharmacy on 12/20/1886. The incorporators were Schellentrager, Joseph H. Peck, P. I. Spenzer, G. L. Heckler, George Keiffer, and Henry W. Stecher.

The School became affiliated with Western Reserve University in 1908. It was renamed the Cleveland School of Pharmacy of Western Reserve University (WRU) in 1917. The School closed in 1949.

In the first year, 1 lecture was offered each week for 20 weeks. It was to be a practical elementary course in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Nathan Rosenwasser was the lecturer. In the second year, Stecher and C. W. Kolbe were the lecturers. In the third year the course was extended to 30 lectures with optional lectures 2 evenings a week. No degrees were conferred by the School.

In 1896-1897 the curriculum was expanded to 3 years leading to the Pharmaceutical Chemist degree. There were 3 classes: freshman, junior, and senior classes.

At the time the School became part of WRU in the 1908/09 academic year, 2 degrees were offered, the Pharmaceutical Chemist (Ph.C.) and the Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph.G.). The difference in degrees depended on the high school experience of the student. Students with 1 year of a “good high school course” received the Ph.G. degree. Students who graduated from high school received the Ph.C. The 2 degrees were almost identical in the theoretical branches. The 2-year course was for full-time students and the tuition was $100 per year. The full-time course included more laboratory work. The 3-year course allowed the student time to work in a local drug store. The tuition was $65 per year.

The Doctor of Pharmacy (Phar.D.) was awarded to candidates who graduated from a “reputable school of pharmacy, who has had at least ten years of pharmaceutical experience since graduation; who presents an acceptable dissertation and who passes an examination before the Committee on Examination.”

Over time the Ph.G. degree became the 2-year degree program and Ph.C. became the 3 year program. Students were not admitted to the 2 -year course of study after the 1924/25 academic year. The Ph.C. and B.S. degrees were offered. The Ph.C. degree was not offered after 6/1935, leaving the B.S. as the only degree offered. Graduate work was possible through the Graduate School.

Total enrollment was 76 in 1908/09. Enrollment was 130 in the last year of existence (1948/49).

The deans of the School, 1908-1949, were:
1908-1911 Henry V. Arny
1911-1912 Norman A. Dubois
1912-1913 T. Barnard Tanner
1913-1916 William C. Alpers
1916-1940 Edward Spease
1940-1941 Edward D. Davy, Acting Dean
1941-1943 Edward D. Davy
1943-1944 Franklin J. Bacon, Acting Dean
1944-1949 Arthur P. Wyss

The School of Pharmacy was located in downtown Cleveland until 1920 when it moved to a house on Adelbert Road. The buildings used by the School included:
1882 - part of a floor of Cleveland City Hall
1900 - 2 floors of Cleveland Gas Light and Coke Company (also called the Gas Building
1910-1920 - Ohio Wesleyan Medical School building
1920-1949 - 2029/2045 Adelbert Road
1933 - Pierce Hall

In 1921 a garden of medicinal plants was established on campus under the management of the Department of Pharmacognosy. In the Spring of 1929 the garden was transferred to Squire Valleevue Farm.

Andrew Squire in medicinal herb garden and plants and seeds harvested from the farm

Plants were cultivated for propagation (for use in the manufacturing laborary) and research. According to Davy’s history, “The School maintains research and manufacturing laboratories, where U.S.P, N.F., and special formulae preparations are made for the hospitals of Cleveland. By agreement between Western Reserve University and the University Hospitals of Cleveland the Head of the Department of Pharmacy in the School of Pharmacy serves as the Directing Pharmacist of the University Hospitals, and the pharmacists in the hospitals become members of the teaching staff of the School. Students are required to take a course in hospital pharmacy under the direction of the hospitals pharmacists. An advanced course in hospital pharmacy is open to students who in the opinion of the faculty show special aptitude and ability.”

Pharmacy students in laboratory, 1913

Records of the School and more information about the School of Pharmacy is available in the University Archives.

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