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May 29, 2018

Western Reserve University School of Pharmacy

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While CWRU has 3 health related schools at the present time (School of Dental Medicine, School of Medicine, and Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing), there was also a School of Pharmacy from 1908 to 1949. This School was first established in 1882 as the Cleveland School of Pharmacy by the Cleveland Pharmaceutical Association. According to a history of the School by Edward D. Davy in 1941, E. A Schellentrager, a retail pharmacist was the “originator of the idea of formal training for prospective pharmacists.” Schellentrager became the first president of the School serving until 1905. The School was chartered under the laws of Ohio as the Cleveland School of Pharmacy on 12/20/1886. The incorporators were Schellentrager, Joseph H. Peck, P. I. Spenzer, G. L. Heckler, George Keiffer, and Henry W. Stecher.

The School became affiliated with Western Reserve University in 1908. It was renamed the Cleveland School of Pharmacy of Western Reserve University (WRU) in 1917. The School closed in 1949.

Curriculum
In the first year, 1 lecture was offered each week for 20 weeks. It was to be a practical elementary course in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Nathan Rosenwasser was the lecturer. In the second year, Stecher and C. W. Kolbe were the lecturers. In the third year the course was extended to 30 lectures with optional lectures 2 evenings a week. No degrees were conferred by the School.

In 1896-1897 the curriculum was expanded to 3 years leading to the Pharmaceutical Chemist degree. There were 3 classes: freshman, junior, and senior classes.

At the time the School became part of WRU in the 1908/09 academic year, 2 degrees were offered, the Pharmaceutical Chemist (Ph.C.) and the Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph.G.). The difference in degrees depended on the high school experience of the student. Students with 1 year of a “good high school course” received the Ph.G. degree. Students who graduated from high school received the Ph.C. The 2 degrees were almost identical in the theoretical branches. The 2-year course was for full-time students and the tuition was $100 per year. The full-time course included more laboratory work. The 3-year course allowed the student time to work in a local drug store. The tuition was $65 per year.

The Doctor of Pharmacy (Phar.D.) was awarded to candidates who graduated from a “reputable school of pharmacy, who has had at least ten years of pharmaceutical experience since graduation; who presents an acceptable dissertation and who passes an examination before the Committee on Examination.”

Over time the Ph.G. degree became the 2-year degree program and Ph.C. became the 3 year program. Students were not admitted to the 2 -year course of study after the 1924/25 academic year. The Ph.C. and B.S. degrees were offered. The Ph.C. degree was not offered after 6/1935, leaving the B.S. as the only degree offered. Graduate work was possible through the Graduate School.

Enrollment
Total enrollment was 76 in 1908/09. Enrollment was 130 in the last year of existence (1948/49).

Deans
The deans of the School, 1908-1949, were:
1908-1911 Henry V. Arny
1911-1912 Norman A. Dubois
1912-1913 T. Barnard Tanner
1913-1916 William C. Alpers
1916-1940 Edward Spease
1940-1941 Edward D. Davy, Acting Dean
1941-1943 Edward D. Davy
1943-1944 Franklin J. Bacon, Acting Dean
1944-1949 Arthur P. Wyss

Buildings
The School of Pharmacy was located in downtown Cleveland until 1920 when it moved to a house on Adelbert Road. The buildings used by the School included:
1882 - part of a floor of Cleveland City Hall
1900 - 2 floors of Cleveland Gas Light and Coke Company (also called the Gas Building
1910-1920 - Ohio Wesleyan Medical School building
1920-1949 - 2029/2045 Adelbert Road
1933 - Pierce Hall

In 1921 a garden of medicinal plants was established on campus under the management of the Department of Pharmacognosy. In the Spring of 1929 the garden was transferred to Squire Valleevue Farm.

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Andrew Squire in medicinal herb garden and plants and seeds harvested from the farm


Plants were cultivated for propagation (for use in the manufacturing laborary) and research. According to Davy’s history, “The School maintains research and manufacturing laboratories, where U.S.P, N.F., and special formulae preparations are made for the hospitals of Cleveland. By agreement between Western Reserve University and the University Hospitals of Cleveland the Head of the Department of Pharmacy in the School of Pharmacy serves as the Directing Pharmacist of the University Hospitals, and the pharmacists in the hospitals become members of the teaching staff of the School. Students are required to take a course in hospital pharmacy under the direction of the hospitals pharmacists. An advanced course in hospital pharmacy is open to students who in the opinion of the faculty show special aptitude and ability.”

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Pharmacy students in laboratory, 1913

Records of the School and more information about the School of Pharmacy is available in the University Archives.

Posted by hxy2 at May 29, 2018 08:27 PM

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