Entries in the Category "Citations"
OCLC Numbers, ISSN's & ISBN's When Submitting ILL Requests
These are always helpful pieces of information when included in your ILL request information, as they aid library staff in searching for potential holdings, thus expediting the overall process. However, we'd like to make note of some important issues about how you enter them into your ILLiad forms...
OCLC Accession Numbers...
These may be from 1 to 9 (or more) digits in length (e.g., '37993343') and are to be found by searching the OCLC WorldCat Database. They are often included also in the bibliographic records of most online library catalogs. You may enter them into the 'OCLC Number' field of the ILLiad request form you are using -- most copy request forms (excluding 'Patent') and all loan request forms have a location to enter this. The presence of an OCLC number is greatly appreciated, but the one you provide may not necessarily the same one we use to search available holdings for processing your request. We may prefer from among other records for the same material that indicate greater potential lenders. ILL staff may thus supersede your cited OCLC number and ultimately choose a different record.
ISSN's (International Standard Serial Number)...
These are commonly cited in article references, and appear in one of these formats: '0317-8471' or '2434-561X'. ILLiad request forms of the types 'Journal Article' and 'Conference Paper' include a field to enter this number. If correctly entered, they will aid in expediting proper copyright clearance, as well as searching serial records and library holdings.
ISBN's (International Standard Book Number)...
These are often cited in references to books, book chapters, or conference papers, and are usually 10 or 13 digits in length. The exist it formats of the following types: '978-3-16-148410-0', '0-684-84328-5' or '0-8044-2957-X' (hyphens may vary in position, or be omitted). ILLiad request forms of the types 'Book', 'Book Chapter' and 'Conference Paper' include a field for this number.
Additional Citing Tips...
When filling out your ILLiad request forms, we ask that you enter only OCLC numbers, ISSN's or ISBN's into the their corresponding data fields. Please avoid entering multiple OCLC numbers, ISSN's or ISBN's numbers into these respective fields. If you happen to have any additional such numbers, they may be specified in the 'Notes' field instead, and ILL staff may choose from among them as alternates.
Please do not enter DOI Abstract numbers (of the format such as '10.1080/0952813X.201'), UMI ProQuest AAT Dissertation/Thesis citation numbers (of the format such as '3090205' or 'NR20411') or any other types of citation numbers where OCLC numbers, ISSN's or ISBN's should be placed. These numbers may be entered into the 'Notes' field instead, to avoid any possible confusion or processing delays.
ILL Staff appreciate any information you can provide to help us better determine the availability of the materials you need. Clearly filling out your request transaction forms, as described above, will allow us to work more efficiently in helping to meet your research needs.
Any questions or concerns regarding citations in ILLiad requests may be addressed to ILL staff, by phone at (216) 368-3463 or (216) 368-3517, or by e-mail at email@example.com.
ILLiad Requests and Non-Roman Alphabetical Characters
Just wanted to report a new development in how ILLiad processes non-Roman characters as they might be applied in your request citations. This will serve as an amendment to part of my entry of January 22, 2010, titled "Foreign Language Titles in Interlibrary Loan Requests". As a preface, "Roman" (or "Latin") is defined as the basic alphabetical character set used to write the English language, as well as the majority of European languages (with the notable exceptions of Greek and Eastern Slavic languages--e.g., Russian, Ukrainian) and many non-European languages worldwide. (As a side note, many modified Roman characters and most diacritical marks used to modify Roman or other alphabetial characters still can be read and imported by ILLiad.)
Upon testing the entry viability of several character sets in the ILLiad system, the following results have been discovered...
Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic and Hebrew alphabets all appear to be accepted and transferable by both ILLiad and OCLC WorldCat. On the other hand, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean writing systems, as well as Hindi script and Armenian alphabetical characters, cannot be effectively processed by ILLiad at all, and any such characters will re-appear as either nondescript place-holders or ASCII character codes within the submitted transaction record fields.
As to how these results are relevant and applicable to your request citation submissions in ILLiad, we would suggest the following...
*In the case of any text entries originally in Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic or Hebrew, it is preferable that in the case of critical search title information--i.e., loan titles (books, theses, music scores, etc.), journal or serial titles, or conference proceedings titles--to provide already transliterated into Roman alphabetical characters. Secondary title information, however, can conceivably be entered in its original form--i.e., in the case of article titles, book chapter titles, conference paper titles. Still, it is always preferable to provide this (and all) text in Romanized version. Of course, one major exception would include any individual technical symbols based on Greek alphabetical characters, in a scientific or mathematical context.
*Avoid entering any text originally in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Hindi, or Armenian (or most other writing systems), unless these have already been transliterated into Roman characters based on a standardized method--in any of the data fields of the ILLiad request form you are using.
Since the OCLC WorldCat database, our principle holdings search resource, is still essentially based upon Roman characters, it is most helpful to ILL staff that you provide as much of your citation data in Roman transliteration as possible, in order to avoid excessive delays. Any text in non-Roman writing will effectively impede the efficient processing of your interlibrary loan requests, as our search processes must be performed primarily using Roman characters. Although ILL staff are often reasonably familiar with foreign languages or can consult readily available translation resources, it cannot be assumed that we are fluent or conversant in anything other than the English language for general research purposes. Any efforts you can make in providing easily readable information--in the written format most familiar to us--will most certainly contribute to the expedient processing of your ILLiad requests, and are greatly appreciated.
2 Tips Regarding Article Requests
Just a couple recommendations for your article requests submitted through ILLiad....
* Please remember to fill out data fields properly, by entering the appropriate pieces of information from your citation into their corresponding fields. Avoid forcing an entire article or chapter citation into the 'Journal Title' or 'Book Title' field (or any other fields, for that matter), and be sure to separate the citation into its component parts for entry into their respective places. Do not overfill any of the shorter fields (such as volume, issue, year, inclusive pages), which are designed to accommodate limited numbers of characters--these will be truncated upon submitting. Any additional staff editing that will be required as a result can lead to delays and processing errors.
* When downloading your electronically received articles, please keep in mind that larger files will require more time than usual to load. Please also note the size column indication for the article you are attempting to view, which will appear in the table listing your current document files, on the same line as the corresponding transaction number. Finally, be sure to keep your PDF viewing software (i.e., Adobe Acrobat) and your preferred browser updated to the most current versions available.
These simple suggestions can often solve most of your problems with requesting articles, and with receiving them once they have been supplied.
Some Brief Comments about ILL Turnaround Times
Just wanted to provide some basic information on what you can normally expect as far as the usual time required to receive materials through interlibrary loan. This applies only to transactions submitted through your ILLiad account, and does not refer to OhioLINK or SearchOhio requests.
In the case of articles (from journals or newspapers, but also including book chapters, conference papers, and any other reproduced materials), we almost invariably provide these to you via electronic delivery. Whenever possible, electronic documents come to you as direct deliveries from the selected lender libraries, after ILL staff perform initial processing. We make use preferably of suppliers previously designated by us as 'trusted senders' when we have the opportunity, wherein the document transmissions occur unmediated from them to you the user. Otherwise, direct transmissions from lenders not in this category take place upon initial inspection and further delivery processing by ILL staff. Finally, in cases where printed copies are received by mail of fax, or scans are sent to us by indirect electronic means, the documents require appropriate conversion in order to be properly delivered through your ILLiad account.
This all, of course, affects the overall period required from the moment your article request is submitted up to the final delivery time. In about half the cases, however, turnaround occurs within 48 hours, although many of these arrive to you same-day. In roughly 2 out of 3 cases, they can usually be expected to arrive in under 5 business days. There will always be occasional requests that require a considerable amount of additional attention, and thus take somewhat longer than usual to fill.
In the case of loaned items (i.e., any materials supplied to you on a temporary basis, with a specified due date and possible usage restrictions), we make similar efforts to minimize the time required to borrow them on your behalf. In a similar way as described above, we attempt whenever possible to select potential lenders that have a reputation for lending us materials promptly and at minimal cost. For example, we can often ascertain beforehand which institutions are likely to provide special material types, such as audio-visual or microfilm. For the most part, you can expect loans to arrive in less than 10 or 11 days, but most come within 5 to 7 days (and sometimes even sooner).
As always, extenuating circumstances may arise that affect the total amount of time required to obtain materials through interlibrary loan, for both articles and loans equally. More common materials are easier to get in short order, while rare or esoteric items can be more challenging to locate. The quality of the original citation information provided when you submit your request can lead to delays if inadequate, incomplete or incorrect data has been entered in critical form fields. Keep in mind also that if you submit your requests immediately prior to or during weekends or holidays, it may increase turnaround time as they will not receive attention until the morning of the next business day.
We try to handle interlibrary loan transactions as much as possible through OCLC WorldCat's ILL resource sharing subsystem, which is by far the most expeditious electronic method readily available to us for intermediary processing. However, if circumstances dictate that we use another method, such as e-mail or lenders' individual ILL online request sites, processing may take longer. We try at all costs to avoid having to send out requests through fax or by regular mail. In some cases, additional procedural requirements may come into play, such as special forms to obtain usage clearance for certain materials (such as theses). The occasional physical or electronic delivery mishaps that can come about, and then of course need requisite remedying, can also lead to unfortunate delays.
Considering all these possible factors that can create a protracted length of time involved in acquiring ILL materials, we are still pleased to be able to provide your articles and loans to you in a relatively quick timeframe.
Some Tips on Properly Filling out ILL Request Forms
Here's some helpful advice to make entering information into our ILLiad forms more straightforward, so that ILL staff may process your requests without any unnecessary delay --
Titles (Journal titles, Book titles, Conference titles, Article titles, Book Chapter titles, Paper titles, etc.) -- Please avoid entering these using non-Roman (non-English) text, such as foreign letters (Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, etc.) or characters (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.). ILLiad will read these (as well as European diacritics) simply as ASCII HTML code, which we cannot very well use when performing bibliographic searches. If at all possible, please provide titles in translated or transliterated form, and to absolutely simplify things, we appreciate if you can also provide the corresponding ISSN or ISBN, or the OCLC accession record number.
Journal titles & Book titles -- Enter the place of publication in its own field, rather than right after the book or journal title. (This would also apply to the name of the publisher, if you wish to provide that as well.) When requesting a journal title, do not also add the volume number, issue number, year, pages, etc. (i.e., the complete citation) altogether after the journal title; all these data pieces should be entered into their own respective fields. Also, please provide the complete title, not just the first word or first few words, unless it actually is a only a one-word or very short title. Avoiding abbreviated titles is greatly appreciated, as well.
Volume -- You do not need to include 'Vol.', 'Volume', etc., when entering this; the number alone is sufficient (preferably in Arabic numerals, but Roman acceptable too if that's how it appears in your original citation). If the volume number is unknown, then of course you may enter 'unknown' or 'n/a' (since this it a 'required' field).
Issue number -- You do not need to enter 'Issue', 'Iss.', 'Iss. no.', 'number, 'no.', etc.; again, the number alone is adequate, and enclosing it in parentheses also unnecessary.
Book chapter number -- Again, you do not need to include 'Chapter', 'Chap.' or 'Ch.' before the actual number.
Date -- If you have it, enter the month (with or without date number), season or quarter, etc., only. Please enter the year in its own separate field.
Year -- Please enter the year only, with no period following or 'c' preceding. Please avoid hyphenated year ranges; it is preferable if you use latest part of the date instead (e.g., '1985' instead of '1984-85'). As the 'year' is almost always a required field, and is accounted for regarding copyright issues, it is best to keep it in a simple 4-digit format.
Pages -- You do not need to include 'p.', 'pg.', 'pp.', 'page', 'pages', etc.'; the actual numbers or inclusive number range is adequate. If you don't know the pages, of course enter 'n/a' or 'unknown', since this is a required field.
**A word about unnecessary abbreviations and superfluous characters when citing the volume number, issue number, chapter number and page numbers -- these fields accommodate only a short but reasonable amount of text, and what you actually enter may become truncated once it reaches the staff processing view, if it exceeds the limit. The most important part of the information you provide may end up being what gets cut off.**
Correct form selection & use -- Some prime examples:
--'Book' vs. 'Book Chapter' -- If you need only a book chapter, please use the corresponding type form; do not use the form intended for borrowing an entire book and then enter the complete book chapter citation in the 'Book title' or 'Notes' field. If you need several chapters from the same book, it may just be better to request the loan of the entire book instead of submitting numerous copy requests (which, of course, can amount to a violation of copyright).
--'Other' -- This form is intended for LOANS of special materials (e.g., audio/visual, microfilm) only. Do not use it to request copies, or for ordinary loans for which other existing form types are already available.
***CAVEAT--About OpenURL & proper entry into ILLiad -- Sometimes you may encounter a reference page (from 'Mendeley', for example) citing an article, conference paper, etc., with an option such as 'Find this paper at: WorldCat'. This may lead you to a new page titled 'Find in a Library' which displays a link such as 'Request through Interlibrary Loan' that may point you to our ILLiad main logon page. Should you log in with your username and password, a session will open, and attempt to fill out a request form automatically. Unfortunately, the incorrect request form is frequently selected, and the information pieces from the citation are not always properly populated into their corresponding data fields. If you choose to make use of this option, it could quite likely delay the processing of your ILL article requests.***
Item per Transaction -- As always, we ask that you request only one journal article, book title, conference paper, etc., per request form that you submit. Multiple-volume book set loans (e.g., 2 or 3), on the other hand, may requested on a single transaction. However, several volumes from an extended book series should still be requested individually in separate transactions.
'Notes' field -- This is intended for you to indicate special instructions for your request only. Do not use it to specify your actual citation, if everything you need to tell us about it can be entered it other existing fields in the form you have selected.
Source of citation -- This is not the same as the actual citation of the material needed; it refers to where you saw it cited (i.e., in another article, course syllabus). It is not required, but is often helpful in locating a supplier for the material during the search process.
This should be enough for now. Hoping these suggestions are helpful to your use of ILLiad and interlibrary loan services at KSL.
OCLC Non-Supplier Locations
We always appreciate when you have made the effort to check the worldwide holdings of an item you need, and provide us with the OCLC accession number when submitting your ILL request. However, I would like to mention a few caveats related to the actual availability of materials that are recorded in the WorldCat database.
When you click on the Libraries worldwide that own item link within an OCLC bibliographic record, a list of library locations will appear, normally organized alphabetically by state but with Ohio appearing at the top, then Canadian and other international locations following. It used to be (if memory serves me correctly) that the status of a potential lender was indicated in the public view as follows -- uppercase OCLC symbols (or capitals in blue, underlined) signified supplier libraries, while lowercase OCLC symbols (or capitals in black, not underlined) indicated non-suppliers. The ILL staff view still retains this feature, so we are still able to immediately ascertain which libraries are most likely to supply materials through interlibrary loan.
Unfortunately, in the current public display this feature no longer persists (if it ever was there to begin with), and you as users are not able to make this distinction as are library staff. In fact, you may be led to believe that all listed locations for a particular item are potential suppliers, since all their symbols appear virtually the same (i.e., capitals, in black). Though it is not so easy for you to determine this any more, a helpful feature is still available. A great number of holdings locations also provide links to the institution libraries' online catalogs on their entry lines (though some of these may currently turn out to be broken as they haven't been updated). Those good links that exist may take you directly to the catalog entry for the particular item for the bibliographic record, or possibly only to the online catalog main search page or the library's main page. If you successfully reach a catalog record for your item at a particular library, the status and availability is usually indicated (e.g., whether item is non-circulating or currently checked out).
Finding a library catalog entry that shows available materials, however, is still not a guarantee that the institution is a potential lender, although it usually is a good indicator. The status of 'non-supplier' in an OCLC member's policy statement implies that they cannot receive requests through OCLC's ILL subsystem, our primary mechanism of operation. A library can list itself as a 'non-supplier' in one of two ways: permanently, as a matter of policy, or temporarily, according to a scheduled closure (holiday break, between academic sessions, re-location down-time, etc.). Also, OCLC libraries marked as supplier institutions can still act as virtual non-suppliers in specific circumstances, by setting up active deflection policies. These locations may choose not to lend outside their own consortium group, or may not loan certain material types (e.g., audio-visual or other special media, archival materials or items over a certain age, books that are deemed too new to loan externally).
Although there is no way now for public users to ascertain the supplier status of OCLC institutions, the following may serve as a rough guide. Most public and academic libraries in the United States and Canada will normally be suppliers, while a good deal of special libraries (corporate, private medical, museums, law firms) are not. Major research libraries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe often are suppliers, but many academic libraries in those places are not. Most libraries in Asia, Latin America, and elsewhere are non-suppliers, though a few academic libraries in Japan are. Several major academic libraries in Australia and New Zealand tend to be suppliers, as well. This is not a hard-and-fast set of rules, and is by no means exhaustive, but is just meant to give a rough approximation of what could be expected from various sources.
As obtaining materials on interlibrary loan from non-suppliers goes, the fact that they do not accept requests through the automated system in place that OCLC provides means that it is much more difficult than usual to borrow from them, if it can be done at all. Many such institutions simply are non-circulating collections, and often will not agree even to provide complete or partial reproductions. Those that will agree to offer interlibrary loan services require the use of mechanisms other than OCLC to receive request transactions. Submitting requests by these means is usually much more time-consuming, and the turnaround time for responses and receipt of materials is much longer than in more routine cases.
OCLC is not the whole story in the business of interlibrary loan, of course, but it is the principle workhorse for us and many other institutions. Libraries that do not act as suppliers through OCLC frequently are those with rare or esoteric collections, and it is in cases where these types of materials are required that our efforts will be protracted. Please be reassured that we still work outside this resource when absolutely necessary to get our users the materials they need. We just want you to be aware that, even though we try to be expeditious in the majority of our services, there are still circumstances beyond our control that put us into a 'holding pattern' (such as needing to borrow a foreign thesis during an academic session break). Your patience, understanding and consideration in such cases it always greatly appreciated.
ILL Do's and Don't's - 1st Installment
Just sending out a friendly reminder of some of the most common helpful hints for better use of your ILLiad services--
Do provide complete and accurate information in your request citations, entering each piece of data into its corresponding form field. Omitting vital pieces of data makes locating and obtaining the materials you need all that much more difficult, for both KSL ILL staff and the ILL staff of potential supplier libraries.
Don't abbreviate titles -- books, journals, conference proceedings, etc. Searching for incomplete of ambiguous titles in the databases which we use consumes excess processing time, delaying your request turnaround.
Do return or renew books by their due date. Overdue ILL books cannot normally be renewed, and items 2 weeks or more past their due date can block your ILLiad account and prevent you from using vital interlibrary loan services.
Don't request renewals after the specified due date. Renewal requests on your ILL books (if allowed or available according to lenders' specified policies) must be submitted within 5 days before original due date. It is not possible to request a renewal online through ILLiad on an overdue book. You will need to contact ILL staff about doing so, and it may be difficult or impossible to expect a lender library to accommodate such a loan extension.
Do check our library's online catalog, OhioLINK (and SearchOhio), electronic journal and electronic book collections, before choosing to use ILLiad. You can save yourself much time by locating books, journals, etc., right here in our own locally accessible collections -- and these won't need to be obtained through interlibrary loan, involving unnecessary time and effort.
Don't request materials already available through our local or consortium collections. You can find books and print journals in our own libraries' physical collections, and access electronic resources directly from campus workstations. *Exceptions apply only in the case of document delivery services provided exclusively to special user types (as noted below).
Do provide sources of citations in the appropriate ILLiad form fields (under 'Where did you learn about this item?'), and any special instructions in the 'Notes' field. We can heed this information immediately when we process your request.
Don't send e-mail comments about ILLiad transactions after already submitting requests, if at all possible. Also note that submitted request forms may be edited and re-submitted if ILL staff have not yet processed them, and you shouldn't need to submit duplicate requests either. ILL staff may have already begun processing requests in ILLiad before ever seeing any such e-mail messages, so corrections to be made after-the-fact based on these (as opposed to 'Notes' in the request form) can be more difficult and time-consuming.
Do use appropriate request forms for the specific corresponding material types -- 'Journal Article', 'Book Chapter', 'Conference Paper', 'Patent' or 'Standards Document' for copies; 'Book', 'Report', 'Thesis' or 'Other' for loans.
Don't use the 'Other' request form for articles or other reproduced materials, or for loans that already fit nicely into the other existing loan request forms. The 'Other' form is only intended for special types of materials to be borrowed, and that require more detailed information and instructions than can be accommodated in the other available forms.
*Exceptions to this policy include the following categories of verified special user statuses:
1. Distance Ed Graduates currently enrolled in Weatherhead's DM (Doctor of Management) program -- may request loans and copies from KSL library collections.
2. Faculty (in departments served by KSL for ILL purposes, but not those so served by other campus library systems, i.e., Health Sciences, MSASS, Law) -- may request copies from KSL collections.
3. Alumni Online Library participants -- may only request copies from KSL collections.
I have discussed all of these points in greater detail in previous blog entries, but just wanted to provide a quick digest of some of the most frequent issues that we encounter while processing ILL requests. There'll be more installments of this sort to come in the future, I'm sure...
One Item per ILLiad Transaction, Please - Revisited
Just another friendly reminder about how to use your ILLiad account whenever you need multiple items supplied through our interlibrary loan service...
When you submit your ILL requests in ILLiad, we prefer that you enter a single transaction for each individual piece of material that you require. If you attempt to request several on just one form, it will lead to processing delays. ILL staff will need to separate your original request into as many transactions as correspond to the total number of items actually cited, if this is practical. Under some circumstances, we may simply cancel your original request and ask that you re-enter all the new transactions properly on your own.
For example, if you need an article from a journal or newspaper which was published in more than one installment, you still have to cite each individual part in a separate form. You should do this regardless of whether they appear consecutively within the same issue or dispersed through multiple issues or volumes. The same is true when you require more than one chapter from the same book, or more than one paper from the same conference proceedings. When you need to access numerous such excerpts from a book or proceedings, it is sometimes just better to place a loan request for the entire item instead. In fact, sometimes we can even attempt to borrow an entire volume or issue of a journal or newspaper (in print or on microfilm), if circumstances warrant and we are able locate a willing lender library.
When you need to obtain considerable amounts of reproduced materials, we always recommend that you be mindful of copyright issues as they apply to your research needs. The most pertinent of them concern how many recent articles you can have reproduced from the same journal and how large a total portion of a book you can have copied, as well as any required permissions from authors or publishers. You can find helpful information in this regard, at our Copyright@Case page.
As far as loan-type requests go, you should proceed similarly for the most part. For example, if you need to borrow a 2- or 3-volume set (or slightly larger, within reason), it will usually be OK to request them altogether on a single transaction. However, when you need multiple non-consecutive volumes from a single title set or series, it is probably better to request each one individually, since we may not be able to borrow every one of them all at once from the same lender. In cases where a specific volume within a larger series has its own title, it may be preferable just to request it separately and cite it by this title rather than by that of the series. You can always make reference to the series title and volume number in the 'Notes' field of your ILLiad loan request form.
Also, when you specifically require more than one particular edition of the same book title, we ask that you still submit requests for each of them in separate transactions. Keep in mind that you also have the option of indicating whether or not you can accept an alternate edition from the one originally cited. When you are requesting different editions individually, it may be a good idea to indicate 'No' for this setting in each case.
Copy Request Forms Available: Journal Article, Book Chapter, Conference Paper, Patent, Standard
Loan Request Forms Available: Book, Report, Thesis, Other (Misc. Loan)
Contact ILL at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Duplicate Requests in ILLiad
Occasionally an ILLiad user may enter multiple identical requests for the reproduction of an article or the loan of a book, sometimes intentionally and sometimes by accident. We realize the possibility of this occurring unintentionally if you should happen to click on the 'Submit Request' button of the request form very quickly more than once. In any case, we ask that you please try your best to avoid submitting duplicate requests into ILLiad, as this will in no way help to speed up the process of obtaining the material you need, and may even create unnecessary delays.
If you think you might have submitted more than one identical request, you may check your current list of 'Outstanding Requests' during an ILLiad login session (under the 'View' section of your Main Menu), to verify if you already have any current transactions for the same material more than once. If any duplicates exist, and have not yet been processed by ILL staff, you may still have the opportunity to cancel them yourself; see the Customer Help Page for more details. If one of these is already in process or has been sent, you can view the 'Notes' or 'Tracking' tables for any pertinent information regarding its status or other processing details added by ILL staff. (At this point, ILL staff will have probably cancelled any existing duplicate transactions, if encountered, and you would have received notifications accordingly.) Otherwise, you may also contact us by phone (216-368-3517 or 216-368-3463) or e-mail, if you have any questions pertaining to additional status or processing details not directly accessible in your ILLiad records.
Please keep in mind that we do not supply multiple copies of the same article, as a matter of policy. This is mainly because of the unnecessary replication of service, but also because copyright issues may arise depending on the circumstances. If, however, an article already supplied to you is somehow deficient (e.g., missing pages or text, illegible print, unclear images), we can usually re-request it using the original transaction (especially if this is caught close to the original submission date), but we can also accept a new request in such a case; please see: Electronic Delivery Information Page - 'NOTE'. We also prefer not to supply multiple copies of the same book simultaneously, unless perhaps you require different editions of the same title for the sake of comparison, or for some other pressing need; you may indicate this within the 'Notes' field of your ILLiad loan request form. Of course, we encourage you to check our Online Catalog and the OhioLINK Catalog first for available local campus and consortium copies of books before submitting an unnecessary loan request in ILLiad.
If you need to make any corrections to a citation you have already entered, or add other helpful information to any 'non-required' fields, you may edit and re-submit your transaction, provided that ILL staff have not as yet processed it up to the status of 'Request Sent'; for more details, see our Customer Help Page. This is highly preferable to submitting a duplicate request with the new or corrected information, for reasons already stated. If, however, the request has been sent (and you no longer are able to make any necessary edits), you still have the option of contacting ILL staff by phone or e-mail with any corrections, at 216-368-3517, 216-368-3463 or email@example.com.
Our routine practice in dealing with duplicate requests is that if they have been submitted consecutively or close in time, ILL staff will process the first chronologically received as a regular request, and immediately cancel any subsequent transactions. However, if a duplicate request should be submitted at a considerably later date, it may get processed normally. ILL staff may cancel the later transaction if such duplication is by chance noticed at some point after the fact, especially if the earlier transaction has already been filled or is indicated as in the process of being filled by a lender library. If a duplicate request happens to contain additional information not included in the original request, this might also by chance be noted by ILL staff and copied over into the first transaction (even if this has already been processed, with a status of 'Request Sent').
Please also be aware that our policy on duplicate requests only applies to multiple transactions submitted by the same ILLiad user. If two or more users happen to request exactly the same article, book chapter or book loan, we will process their requests without question. However, if a pattern emerges where several users appear to require much of the same materials in common, we may be prompted to do some detective work in determining the academic course to which they appear to be associated, and possibly contact the appropriate instructor. In such a case, these materials should be treated in the context of reserve services rather than being repeatedly obtained through interlibrary loan.
We hope that the above explanation has clarified some of the major concerns that arise when duplicate requests are submitted, and how user cooperation and consideration in avoiding them can help ILL staff provide our services to you with greater efficiency.
Requesting Entire Series through ILL
Sometimes in rare instances it becomes necessary for a researcher to consult the entire run of a journal, serial or large multi-volume book set (or large portions thereof), usually in the manner of an overview. Though we do indeed want to facilitate satisfying this need when it must be done through interlibrary loan channels, we do not recommend submitting a single ILLiad request transaction for borrowing an entire series all at once. We will present a number of helpful suggestions and caveats here to make fulfilling such a need much more manageable, for you as a user, and for library staff both here at Kelvin Smith Library and at the lender institution (or institutions) from which we will attempt to obtain these materials.
First of all, we prefer that you use the 'Other' (Misc. Loan) request form available from the Main Menu in your ILLiad login session. This form includes a 'Citation' field that can accommodate up to 1500 characters of text, so you have plenty of room to be specific about what you need to borrow. Other loan-type forms available do contain fields that can hold a reasonably large number of characters (where this is appropriate, e.g., for book or thesis titles), but entering an inordinately large amount of text will result in it being truncated at a certain point.
Secondly, it may be necessary for you to submit several individual ILL requests in sequence, rather than on a single transaction for all the required volumes, issues or parts at one time. We recommend that you consider ahead of time what you can use practically at once, and then break your total request down into several smaller groups. Limit each of these separate transactions to a more reasonable quantity, judiciously selecting those parts most urgently required for your research, if this is at all possible to determine.
Next, the question might we whether you should submit all your requests at approximately the same time, or instead maybe one or two of these at first and holding off subsequent request groups for a later time. It is not always the most prudent approach to simply attempt to request all the parts you need simultaneously, even when you have broken your total request down into a number of smaller requests. One issue to take into consideration is how many of the pieces ultimately needed for your research that you can practically use at a given time. Another consideration is how many potential lender libraries actually hold the series in question (as well as the exact parts required, since not all may have complete holdings for the title), as well as their policies on lending them. For example, some may not lend them all, and others may only agree to loan out just so many at one time (often imposing 'Library Use Only' restrictions as well).
We suggest that, after consulting cataloguing information about a series title (as from OCLC WorldCat) and taking note of the available library holdings, you decide how then to proceed. (Do not hesitate to contact ILL staff at 216-368-3517, 216-368-3463 or firstname.lastname@example.org ahead of time for assistance.) The strategy we ordinarily recommend (and which frequently is in accordance with many potential lenders' own policies) is to request your first group at the start. Once these have been supplied by a prospective lender, and you have used and returned them, you may then submit a new request for the next group of required pieces. Please be aware that some lenders will wait for the first loaned group of volumes to physically arrive at their location before they will even consider accepting a new request for another group of parts.
However, it is not out of the question for us to put several ILL transactions into place at the same time, as it may even be possible to borrow different groups of parts of the series in question from different potential lender libraries simultaneously, if this approach is practicable. Of course, we must investigate in advance as to whether the requisite sources to be involved are amenable to this, in order to successfully employ such a strategy. If we are working with more than one lender library that exercises the above-mentioned policy, this approach can at least shorten the overall length of time required to obtain all the required parts.
Please keep in mind that lender libraries may choose to supply fewer parts than were originally specified on a submitted request, as a matter of policy or contingent upon actual availability. Unfortunately, this circumstance can result in an unanticipated delay to your total service, requiring additional submissions to supplement the lacking pieces, if at all possible. As you might not always end up receiving all that you expected in a particular instance, we would suggest that you consider paring down the number of volumes or parts you can actually make use of within a single request, for the sake of practicality. We do not necessarily suggest that you submit only one ILL request transaction for each individual volume or part, of course.
As you can surmise, the prospect of executing these types of weighty requests can become very complicated if they are to be properly and completely fulfilled. It may result in a process spanning over the course of several months, or possibly even longer. It is wise to consider this factor, especially if it can be coordinated advantageously with the time frame of your research. Ultimately your approach should be contingent upon the total quantity of pieces you actually require, the time span over which you expect to make use of them, and the amount of available sources from which we can access them. Kelvin Smith Library's ILL staff will do our best to help and advise you in this kind of endeavor.
OCLC WorldCat and ILLiad Requests
OCLC WorldCat is an invaluable resource for the location of materials potentially available for obtaining through interlibrary loan, and is our principle recourse in the searching process. If you have already searched this database before submitting your ILL request through your ILLiad account, you will note there is a field in most of the forms where you may enter the 'OCLC Number'--more specifically the 'OCLC Accession Number'. If you have this piece of information, providing it when submitting your request will greatly assist ILL staff in locating the materials you need from potential lender libraries.
You may access this resource from our library's Research Databases page. Select 'W' (not 'O') from the alpha list, then on the new page scroll down and select 'WorldCat'. You may then perform searches using any of various indexes, limits, etc., and will then be provided the results from which you may select specific bibliographic records. Clicking on 'Libraries worldwide that own item' will provide you with the OCLC symbols for the OCLC participant library locations that have holdings for the corresponding monograph or series title. The list that appears will indicate the names of potential lender institutions (next to their symbols), and if underlined these will link you to the library's online catalog (in many cases also automatically performing an OCLC Accession Number or keyword search).
Clicking on 'Search the catalog at OhioLINK' will perform a search in the OhioLINK Catalog based on the OCLC Accession Number for the selected record, and 'Find a Copy' will perform a similar search based on title and author keywords. (If you locate holdings of books in OhioLINK, we encourage you to pursue requesting available copies, if any, directly through that resource.)
Once you have determined the corresponding OCLC Accession Number for the material you need, and are ready to submit your ILLiad request, you may specify it in the appropriate form. We ask that you enter only one OCLC Accession Number into the 'OCLC Number' field, preferably that which has indicated the greatest number of potential holdings. If you have any additional accession numbers known that may be used alternatively, please specify them in 'Notes' field instead. Provide only the OCLC Accession Number in the 'OCLC Number' field--if you lack this number, please leave it blank. ISSN, ISBN and call numbers have their own specified fields (where applicable) in which they are to be entered, and any other reference number types (e.g., Library of Congress Control Number) may instead be indicated in the 'Notes' field.
Providing information from the OCLC WorldCat beforehand can greatly expedite the Interlibrary Loan service we provide for your research needs. Doing so will help avoid complications and delays in processing your requests, so we can get your materials to you as quickly as possible.
Multiple-Part Loans Borrowed through ILL
Occasionally you may require a loaned title on ILL that arrives in more than one part (whether or not you specified this when originally submitting your request), and sometimes includes several pieces of various sizes. This will often cause practical concerns when you need to check the items out and transport them to your home or study location, as large numbers of parts or excessively large pieces can be unwieldly and inconvenient to carry. In any case, when you come to the library to use these materials, you will still be required to check out all the parts together as they are recorded on a single request transaction in your ILLiad account. Each piece may have an individual slip which you need to sign and date separately (when only a few are involved), but for loans with a large number of parts we will usually include only a single slip for all of them, as this is more practical.
If possible, we suggest that you ask the KSL desk staff if it is possible to borrow a book truck temporarily if you plan to use the materials you have borrowed only within the library building. If any empty carts are available you may be able to arrange for permission to do this. If you need to take all the parts home with you (except in the case of Library-Use-Only loans), you can take some during one visit and the remaining ones at later times. In such a case, explain your situation to a desk staff member and ask that they place a note on any parts you will be picking up at a later time, so these may be held securely on the hold shelf until then. This option would work best when oversized or heavy pieces are involved and when you are unable to carry or use all of them at once.
Keep in mind that any loans marked as 'Library-Use-Only' should only be used within the confines of the Kelvin Smith Library building. They are furnished with one or more special sign-out slips to indicate your usage times, and whether you are finished using them and they can be returned to the lender. However, if a large or multi-part loan is allowed to circulate outside the library, but you have determined that for practical reasons you would prefer to limit your use to the library only, you can ask the desk staff to improvise a note on which to indicate that you wish the materials to be kept on the hold shelf when not in use, until you are indeed finished using them. Microfilm loans, though not oversized, are also usually best kept in the library (whether they have been marked Library-Use-Only or not), as the facilities and equipment for reading and duplicating them are available within the building anyway.
Once you have finished using ILL loans that have come in multiple parts, remember that all of them need to be returned in order for the request transaction in your ILLiad account to be cleared. Partial returns to the desk are OK, but keep in mind that the loan will still have a 'Checked Out' status (and you may continue receiving e-mail notices from the ILLiad system if near or past the due date), until you have accounted for each and every part and turned them in to the KSL main service desk staff. When they attempt to check the items into our ILL circulation system, they are also alerted whenever a loan includes more than one piece (and specifically the total number of pieces) and will bring this to your attention.
We hope that these suggestions and policy clarifications will make you feel more comfortable about your use of ILL loans of inordinate size or number, and lessen any inconvenience to your research.
Requesting '[Epub ahead of print]' Articles on ILL
Occasionally you may run across a citation online for an article, usually in the PubMed database, that denotes a status of [Epub ahead of print]. This implies that the publisher has submitted the citation in reference to an article that has been published online in advance of the actual print journal issue being released. It is often tempting to want to have full-text access to such an article, but this can present some difficulties, and is not always immediately possible in some circumstances.
Although there is no simple directive we can offer about obtaining such an article in real time, we can suggest the following:
*First, if a "Free" link to the full-text article is provided at your citation reference source, then click on the link to access the PDF or HTML document.
*Next, check to see if the article is available through one of our electronic journal subscriptions by searching the journal title in the Electronic Journals page.
*Finally, try going directly to the journal's own website to see if the publisher has made the article freely available there.
We cannot guarantee that any of these options will work to your satisfaction, since policies vary widely from one publisher to the next on the terms of usage for a given subscription. Sometimes our subscription will cover this content and sometimes it won't. With over 65,000 e-journal subscriptions to which we have access, and with the respective publishers having divergent electronic publishing practices, it is not easy to be sure if and when such articles will become accessible.
Some publishers limit online access only to certain individual subscribers, while charging others to obtain these articles. For example, if a publisher has provided a link that takes you to a fee-based service or requires a login and password, you may either decide to purchase the article yourself directly from the publisher or discuss having the article ordered on your behalf with one of our reference librarians. Unfortunately, in some cases it just may simply be necessary to be patient and wait for the print issue to be published.
We can also recommend that, if our library has a subscription to either the print or electronic version of the journal (or both), that you check back occasionally in our CASE Online Catalog, or in the electronic journals page, to see if the issue has become available for use. If none of these lead to a satisfactory outcome, we can finally suggest that you submit an ILL request, using our ILLiad Interlibrary Loan Services, and we could attempt to get the article for you by that means. If you feel the necessity of entering the phrase '[Epub ahead of print]' when you submit your journal article request, we prefer that you place it in the 'Notes' field rather than the 'Volume' field; if you do not know the actual volume number, just enter 'n/a' or 'unknown' there.
Please be aware if you should choose to request through interlibrary loan, that although we will try our best, it may not be possible to get the article through another library. The article may be available only to individual subscribers, and copyright restrictions may prevent subscriber libraries from further supplying to us second-handedly out of an e-journal. We may be forced to select potential lenders that subscribe to the print edition (if we don't already ourselves), and wait until they receive the published journal issue in question in order to produce the copy or scan for us. The process may not be terribly expedient after all, and defeat the entire purpose of early online publishing. The worst case scenario may even result in our not being able to obtain the article at all due to circumstances outside our control.
Hopefully we have clarified this issue as it relates to your use of our interlibrary loan services, and to what extent we are able to fill your research needs as far as very recent journal articles are concerned.
Requesting Books vs. Book Chapters
Just a reminder about making the distinction between a request for the reproduction of portion of a book (or a paper from a published proceedings, for that matter) and one for the actual loan of the entire item...
When you need only a copy of an individual chapter from a book, we ask that you please use the 'Book Chapter' (or 'Conference Paper' if this is more appropriate) request form. Please do not use the 'Book' request form and then add information into the 'Notes' field about any specific section(s) you need to have copied--this particular form is intended only for the request of a loan of the entire book (or proceedings). Of course, if you require more than one chapter (or paper) reproduced you will need to submit a separate 'Book Chapter' request transaction for each of them.
As always, we recommend that you check first for local availability of any books in the Kelvin Smith Library and other Case campus location library collections by first searching the CASE Online Catalog, before you even decide to use ILLiad. If you cannot find it locally, always look in the OhioLINK Catalog for available copies as well. If you can locate a copy of a book within the KSL or other CASE Library locations, then there really is no need to request it (or reproductions of sections thereof) through ILLiad. If you find it in OhioLINK, then you may do better simply to request the entire piece through their online borrowing function. If an OhioLINK book does not circulate, or you really only need a portion of one reproduced under urgent circumstances, then submit a 'Book Chapter' (or 'Conference Paper') request and mention OhioLINK availability in the 'Notes' field, citing the specific location if possible.
When items are not available either in any CASE campus locations or in OhioLINK, it is often helpful for you to search WorldCat for possible lender locations before submitting your request (for a loan or a chapter copy) through ILLiad. You can enter this helpful information into the 'Notes' field in order to expedite processing. If you can also provide an OCLC Accession Number for the corresponding bibliographic record, enter it in the 'OCLC Number' field of the appropriate request form. (If you cannot reach WorldCat from the link provided above, try accessing if from our Research Databases page, searching under the 'W' section. If this does not work, you may need to use a workstation from a CASE campus location or with VPN accessibility.)
In any case, we always suggest that requesting the loan of an entire book is the preferred alternative to requesting a book chapter of excessive length (e.g., 80-100 pages or more). If you need several chapters (or conference papers) all from the same book (or proceedings), again it is preferable to submit a single request to borrow the entire piece instead of several for a number of individual copies. As always you need to be mindful of Copyright restrictions when submitting any large number of copy requests (or requests for very large sections of a book). We suggest that you consult the Copyright@Case page before doing anything of this sort through ILLiad. For example, many copyright holders specify that no more than 15% of the total page length of a book may be reproduced (through one or more requests, collectively), often even requiring special written permission from the publisher.
We hope this information will be useful in helping you to use ILLiad and our interlibrary loan services more judiciously. In this way we can make our efforts more efficient and expeditious towards assisting your research needs.
Requesting Specific Editions & New Books on ILL
Whenever you submit an interlibrary loan request you may notice in the request forms for Books, Book Chapters, and Reports that you have the option of indicating the specific edition that is relevant or appropriate to your original citation. In the case of Books and Reports, you will also note the selection marked 'Will you accept an alternate edition of this item?' with the options 'No' and 'Yes' (default). The 'No' vs. 'Yes' option is not included in the Book Chapter request form because an edition other than that originally cited may or may not include the chapter referenced, or the chapter may not be found at the same pages cited due to revision. Indicating a specific edition is also not included for Thesis requests, as it is essentially irrelevant to that loan type and is synonymous with the year. In the case of Other (Misc. Loan) form, edition (if even applicable) can be noted in the body of the Citation text field.
When you have the option to indicate an edition, it should normally be indicated as '1st', '2nd', '3rd', etc., or 'rev.' (revised), 'instructor', 'student', etc. The year of publication should be indicated in its own appropriate field on the request form and not in the 'Edition' field. If you do indicate a specific edition, and you leave the alternate edition option at 'Yes', we will first attempt to borrow the specified edition and only request an alternate once those available appear to be exhausted. If you instead indicate 'No', we will terminate the request once we exhaust the possible available copies of the specified edition and send you an appropriate cancellation notice; you will always have the option to re-submit the request with a change of the setting to 'Yes' instead. If you have not indicated a specific edition, we will assume that we can request the most recent edition of which there appear to be the most copies available for borrowing. Please remember that if you do not specify a particular edition, you cannot indicate 'No' as an option for accepting alternate editions. Also, if you omit an entry in the 'Edition' field, but do specify an ISBN, we will assume that the specific edition you require is already implied.
In the case of requesting newly published books or the newest editions of books (when not indicating that you will accept an alternate edition), we will try our best to borrow the one you specifically need, but there is always the possibility that no copies may be available for borrowing through interlibrary loan. You may have checked holdings listed in OCLC WorldCat records, but often these refer only to copies that are currently on order at their respective locations or copies specially ordered that have already been charged out to their local requestor immediately after cataloguing. Where very new titles or editions are concerned, it can be expected that your ILL request may become cancelled due to the current lack of available copies in the collective library holdings pool. The cancellation notice you receive will normally contain a message suggesting that you re-submit your request in 2-3 months (which is a reasonable period under such circumstances, as it allows more locations to order and obtain additional copies) or that you submit a 'Suggest a Purchase' request to our library's Acquistions Department. This option (as budgetary resources allow) will result in the future permanent availability of such a title within the KSL collections, allowing more flexible loan and renewal policies than for one borrowed through ILL. Suggesting a purchase often is a preferable initial option to requesting an interlibrary loan, as it helps build our own collection, and contributes to our holdings better reflecting the research needs of our university community.
Copyright Issues & ILL
One very important issue to always keep in mind when doing scholarly research, particularly as it relates to interlibrary loan, is that of copyright. You must always be careful regarding the types and volume of materials that you choose to request through ILL, as they impact upon copyright laws and restrictions. These rules are imposed primarily to protect the rights of the authors and publishers who produce these materials, and more recently we as users are expected by the relevant authorities to adhere to them more strictly now than in the past.
Where articles from copyright-protected journals or serials are involved, libraries generally follow the so-called 'Rule of 5'. This implies a limit of 5 articles within same journal title, published within the most recent 5 years, that may be requested within a single calendar year without penalty. Once this number is exceeded, the library must begin paying copyright fees per each individual additional article, usually through the Copyright Clearance Center. Often these amounts may be quite exorbitant, based on the particular publication. (Of course, articles older than 5 years are not so accounted according to this method.) We can, at our discretion, refuse to accept interlibrary loan requests for articles that are excessive in number and require us to pay unduly large fee totals, and will usually recommend a more practical alternative. This would hold true in the case of a request for the reproduction of an entire recent journal issue, as well. This is a relatively rare situation, however, and we prefer to avoid cancellations for this reason.
As far as books and other monographs are concerned, many of us are familiar with the following warning that usually appears on the imprint page: 'All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced ... without the prior written permission of the publisher.' Of course researchers will frequently be in need of copies of book chapters or conference papers for scholarly use, almost as much as for journal articles. The general rule we often encounter specifies that a maximum of 15% of a book's total page length may be legally reproduced for scholarly research purposes, whether or not this involves the imposition of copyright fees and possibly even regardless of the age of the book. Complete reproductions of theses and dissertations are usually not difficult to obtain (when the items cannot otherwise be borrowed), but occasionally may require the author's written permission to authorize such a reproduction by the holding library or archive.
The rules pertaining to music scores can become very complicated, and it is best not to expect reproductions of them to supplied without considerable efforts and formalities. Audio-visual materials, such as sound recordings and videos, for the most part cannot be legally reproduced without special permission from the rightsholder. Although we accept requests for such materials that are not available to you through other sources, we discourage any implication that we obtain reproductions of these items rather than loans, and can refuse such requests at our discretion.
Whenever we have been able to supply you with a copy of an article, book chapter, conference paper, patent, thesis, etc., we recommend that it is not advisable for you to freely reproduce the electronic files. Many suppliers will specifically stipulate that only one copy may be distributed to our user, and that only a single copy may be retained in electronic storage or printed to a hardcopy format. We greatly appreciate your respect for and adherence to this restriction, and the statement of such by the provider will usually appear clearly on a page at the beginning or end of the scanned file to make you aware when this applies.
If you want to avoid copyright issues altogether (almost), we always recommend that you submit a request for the loan of an entire piece, as an alternative. In the case of books and conference proceedings, it is usually quite easy to obtain a loan of the entire item that contains the portion you may require. It is usually more difficult to borrow a complete issue or volume of a journal or newspaper, whether in hard copy or on microfilm, though not entirely impossible. Such loans will usually have a brief loan period, and may also bear 'NO RENEWAL' and 'LIBRARY USE ONLY' restrictions as well. If this is the route you prefer to take, submit your request using one of our 'loan-type' forms, i.e., 'Book', 'Report', 'Thesis' or 'Other', rather that any of the remaining 'article-type' forms. As always, we strongly urge that you check for availability of a loanable item in OhioLINK first, before you choose to use ILLiad. Remember that as far as to what extent you make personal reproductions of sections of loaned items, it will be incumbent upon you to bear the responsibility of how doing so impacts copyright.
Another effective alternative would be to request the acquisition of an item for addition to KSL collections, using the Suggest a Purchase form. You may suggest that our library obtain a book, conference proceedings, or even a single issue of a particular journal, which contains those sections you need for your research, and once it has been catalogued it will be available for your immediate use and for additional future use as well.
Keeping the implications of copyright in mind when doing your scholarly research can help you avoid serious legal problems which can arise in future academic situations. If you wish to read more detailed information about copyright issues, please see our library's site at the following link: Copyright@Case.
Foreign Language Titles in Interlibrary Loan Requests
The research needs in the academic setting of American universities call primarily for materials in the English language (with the obvious exception of foreign language studies), though occasionally researchers will require items that are published or are available only in non-English versions. As this pertains to interlibrary loan services, there are generally two major issues of concern. The first of these is whether or not you the customer are able to make use of those that can be obtained only in a language other than English. If so, the other is actually how to submit your citations properly when you place your requests through your ILLiad account. I will try here to touch upon these issues, in one way or another, as they apply in various situations.
All of our ILLiad request forms include the option marked 'Will you accept the item in a language other than English?'. The default value for this is set at 'Yes', the basic assumption being that the usefulness of foreign-language materials is commonly accepted among institutions of higher learning, and can simply be taken for granted. You may select 'No' if you prefer, but if you insist that you can make use of materials available only in English and thus specifically choose to reset this option, there is the possibility that ILL staff will notify you, as circumstances warrant, that your cited items can only be obtained in their original language.
The most common situation to be addressed here involves journal titles in foreign languages. If you cite an article appearing in a journal or periodical with a non-English title, you should expect most often that it will appear in the same language as the title of the publication containing it. It is quite common for an article from an non-English-speaking country to be cited in reference lists with the title translated into English. It is also not unusual to find the abstract of the article available in English translation in various research databases. However, the full-text is normally published only in the original language.
There do exist a number of journals with non-English titles that do contain articles in English, and this can complicate matters. For example, there are journals with either English or non-English titles (usually published internationally) that contain articles in multiple languages, including some in English. Some foreign-language journals may include an English abstract with the original language article text. Many Canadian journals are published with articles having parallel translations in both English and French. Some Soviet-era Russian journals were published simultaneously in English translation for part of their run, and many modern Russian journals are also available in English translation--a major problem with these, however, is that they are frequently cited with the pagination from the original, which does not match that of the translated version (and thus needs to be verified in the table of contents of the corresponding issue of the English edition).
There are a number of German technical journals that are published with articles in English, even though they retain the original journal title in German. There are also a great number of modern scholarly journals with Latin titles that contain articles in English and other languages, although none actually appear in Latin. Finally, some Chinese, Japanese, and Korean journals contain articles in their original languages, but with an English abstract also included, while others are published full-text in English translation.
The situation with monographic materials is somewhat different. In the case of scholarly or esoteric books and conference proceedings, they are more likely to exist only in the language of the country from which they originate or of the nationality of the author or authors. As for books of popular literature, such as novels, they are more likely to be available both in the original language and in any of various translations, often depending on their level of notoriety. If you need to borrow one of these, you can specify an edition in a particular translation when you submit your request in ILLiad, as long as you are certain of its existence as such.
Theses and dissertations, by their very nature, are fairly certain to exist only in one language, that of the country of the college or university where they were done. (An obvious exception, once again, is for those done in foreign language study programs.) In general, if a thesis was submitted at a university in a non-English-speaking country, it will almost never exist in English translation as well as in its original language. (However, theses that later become published books--in rare cases--may perhaps be also translated.) There are also theses that are done at non-English-speaking institutions that, for some reason or another, have actually been originally written in English, although this is more of an exception.
In the case of patents, since they are so closely associated with a particular country and its commercial law, they are almost always available only in the language of the country of their origin, and not also in English translation. You can only expect a patent to be available in English if it was filed at the patent office of an English-speaking country, or perhaps with the World Intellectual Property Organization.
Finally, as for proper submission of your foreign language materials requests into the ILLiad forms, the main issue involves the kind of characters that you input. The rule is basically to enter you text data into the appropriate fields using Roman (or Latin) alphabetical characters, i.e., the alphabet used in the majority of Western and Central European languages, as well as in those of various other countries outside Europe. This is because ILLiad cannot accept data input in non-Roman characters, e.g., Cyrillic, Greek, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Arabic, Hebrew, etc. Text must be cited in accurate phonetic transliteration into Roman letters in order to be processed properly. The ILLiad program is not capable of converting non-Roman characters into usable Roman print, but rather will only interpret them into the HTML equivalent codes for the corresponding Unicode characters, which cannot be practically used for our purposes of bibliographic searching. A similar result occurs when entering non-English text in Roman-alphabet languages that include modified Roman characters and diacritical marks not normally found in English (e.g., umlaut, accent, circumflex, tilde--either separate or as part of a letter character). Usually enough basic Roman characters appear to make the complete foreign words discernable in such cases, but this still can delay the search process.
It is absolutely essential in order for ILL staff to efficiently process requests for foreign-language materials, that they be cited using the standard alphabet of the English language, allowing us to properly search journal and book titles in OCLC WorldCat and other bibliographic resources. In order to help us narrow our searches, it is also useful for you to provide an ISSN or ISBN with your citation, when you submit your foreign-language material requests. With your collaborative help, ILL staff can more quickly and efficiently meet your need for materials not in English.
Theses & Dissertations -- Availability through Interlibrary Loan
A few words about borrowing theses or dissertations for your scholarly research needs...
First of all, if you need to access any titles that have been done at any of the colleges of Case Western Reserve University (or any of its predecessor institutions), you should ordinarily not have to request them through interlibrary loan. Be sure you have searched them in the CASE Online Catalog for current availability. The most recent 5 years of masters' theses (and the newest Ph.D. dissertations) from the College of Arts and Sciences, Case School of Engineering, and the Weatherhead School of Management should be available in the Kelvin Smith Library. Any titles done at the School of Medicine, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, or the School of Law should be held at their respective library locations. All others should be available for request by using the Iron Mountain form.
Theses originally submitted in electronic format will often have a link displayed in their online catalog entries, for immediate download. You may also search the availability of many electronic CASE thesis titles that have been digitized at either Digital Case Electronic Theses or OhioLINK Electronic Theses.
If you cannot find a CASE thesis title in our catalog, or if one that you do find is not currently available (e.g., checked out, in processing, or at bindery), we suggest you contact the University Archives for further assistance. The phone number for their reference desk is 216-368-3320, and they may also be contacted at Archives@case.edu.
If you need to borrow a thesis or dissertation that was done at any of the OhioLINK Member Universities, you should first search for it in the OhioLINK Catalog, where you can submit your request directly. Digitized OhioLINK theses are also available for download through the OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center.
In all other cases, you should use ILLiad to request the thesis titles you require. Remember to use the 'Thesis' form under the 'New Request' section of the Main Menu, when you log into your account. The data fields provided in this page are appropriate to this particular loan type. You should use this form for titles done at Ohio universities not part of OhioLINK, U.S. universities outside Ohio, and any universities outside the United States.
Keep in mind that the loans of theses or dissertations borrowed through ILLiad will be subject to different loan rules than any that you borrow directly from the CASE or OhioLINK collections. As each lending institution operates along its own set of policies, it is possible that various restrictions may be imposed. For example, loan periods may vary (in contrast to the uniform due dates of direct check-outs), renewals may or may not be allowed, and in some cases a 'library-use-only' restriction may be required. When you receive a notification of receipt, the message text will indicate if any of these apply.
Some additional issues and caveats to remember about borrowing theses through ILLiad...
Most often a thesis or dissertation is held only at the library of the institution where it was done. Sometimes there are copies available held at more than one library location, with the possibility of two or more libraries at the same university. Occasionally some theses are widely held through several locations besides the originating institution, as a reflection of how influential the author's research has proven to be. Usually, however, you can expect only a single copy to be all that will be available for borrowing through interlibrary loan.
Occasionally a thesis is on loan at the institution's library at the time you place a request for it, and they will often reply by informing us to try again at a future date. Under these circumstances, we will send you a cancellation notice and suggest that you re-submit your request at a time when it may again be available for loan.
If you have already requested a particular thesis title that we have been able to borrow for you and have recently returned it, you should expect not to be able to borrow it again immediately. Please put off re-requesting it for at least two to three weeks (or longer if a foreign thesis) if you need it again, to allow for return shipping, check-in and re-shelving for future availability at the lender library.
Some theses will only be available for circulation in microfilm (reel or fiche) formats from the lender libraries. We usually try to request hard copies of theses when we can, but sometimes only microfilms are loaned to us by the lender libraries even when we do not expect them. Many Canadian theses, for example, can only be borrowed from the National Library of Canada, which loans them almost exclusively in microfiche format. Please remember that the Kelvin Smith Library does offer the appropriate equipment and reference assistance for viewing microfilm format, as well as for reproducing into the print or electronic forms which you may find more useful. Consider this before returning any unused theses borrowed for you on microfilm through ILL.
Some lenders will actually provide us with a complete reproduction of a thesis or dissertation. When this is in electronic format, we usually can provide it to you through electronic delivery (after converting your ILLiad transaction into an article-type request format). Due to copyright restrictions, you will be expected to save or print only a single copy of the thesis, which you may retain for personal research use but not freely disseminate. Keep in mind that it will usually be a fairly large file, so please allow adequate time for it to download. When we actually receive a print reproduction, we will provide it to you as a loan, with indefinite renewals if needed. As this material is library property, we will expect you to return it when you are finished so we may submit it to our Acquisitions Department to be considered for binding and addition to the Kelvin Smith Library collections, for future availability.
Expect that some theses will take us longer to obtain than the usual loans you may request. Those done at Canadian, British, European, Japanese and other foreign universities will often require more time for us to borrow, and in some cases we will only be able to obtain them by purchasing a reproduction directly from the holding library, which often becomes a time-consuming process (more about that below). You can also expect many European and other non-English universities' theses to be available only in the original language, and not in English translation. Some of these may be referenced (i.e., title & abstract only) in translation, but not be available in full-text translation. Occasionally, though, some actually are written originally in English by their authors.
Once in a while, a holding library will not allow a thesis title to circulate at all. We can sometimes purchase a reproduction from them, but unfortunately this is not always the case. Some libraries will require us to obtain permission directly from the author before proceeding with processing a reproduction. Some lenders will instead refer us to University Microfilms International to purchase a copy ourselves, while others will simply not offer any option at all. In many such cases, we will have to cancel your ILLiad request and inform you of the specific circumstances. When a title is available from University Microfilms International, we will also suggest that you may wish to purchase a personal copy, or advise you to contact our Acquisitions Department using the Suggest a Purchase form to have a copy added to our own collections.
Hopefully this has shed some light regarding theses and dissertations, and how best to use interlibrary loan services and other available resources in accessing them.
'Other' Request Form (Miscellaneous Loans)
You may have noticed one of the options in your ILLiad Main Menu for request forms, labeled as 'Other (Misc. Loan)' and appearing at the bottom of the 'New Request' section. This specific form was added a few years ago as part of our latest major upgrade to the ILLiad system, and was intended solely for requesting items that do not fit into any of the existing 'loan-type' categories already included -- i.e., 'Book', 'Report', 'Thesis'.
Please use this form to submit requests for special LOANS only, such as audio/visual items (videos, CD's, etc.), serial microfilm reels (journals, newspapers), entire journal volumes or issues in print, maps, and any other rare or archival items. Do NOT use this form for loans of ordinary books (including music scores and complete conference proceedings), theses/dissertations or reports/government documents, or for reproductions of journal or newspaper articles, book chapters, conference papers or patents -- use the appropriate request forms that already exist for these types instead, and add your comments to the 'Notes' field if necessary.
The unique feature of this form is the 'Citation' field, which can accommodate up to 1500 characters, where you can enter free text describing the material you require. Please keep in mind that you should still only cite one individual item per transaction (unless it is a multi-part set, all bearing the same title). You may need to submit separate requests when you require more than one distinct piece, even if these happen to be in a closely related subject area.
In the 'Item Producer' field, you may indicate the individual or organization that created or sponsored the material, if this is known. Also, if you already have searched this item in WorldCat, you can enter the OCLC Number as this will vastly minimize processing time. Finally, you can enter any additional information that may be helpful to us in tracking down this material, in the 'Notes' and 'source-of-citation' fields at the bottom of the form.
Remember that when you request any special material types, such as those suggested above, the libraries that offer to lend them may choose to impose restrictions, such as 'No Renewals', 'No Photocopying' or 'Library Use Only', and expect that we will observe these as a condition of the agreement to loan. In some cases of rare or fragile documents, the lenders may instead decide to provide them as a reproduction, and in those instances ILL staff will convert such a request to an article format and supply the material to you by electronic delivery.
Please bear in mind that when you use the 'Other' request form, it almost invariably will require extended processing time from ILL staff, as searching for special materials is more involved than for most ordinary items. Also, remember that even when rare or esoteric materials have been catalogued in OCLC, or are cited in other databases, there is no guarantee that they are necessarily obtainable through interlibrary loan. We will, in any case, make our best effort in trying to supply you with those hard-to-find items you need for your research.
'Notes' and 'Source of Citation' Fields in ILLiad Request Forms
Whenever your ILLiad request requires some special attention (such as 'RUSH' service or prior contact with a potential supplier location), the 'Notes' field in the online form is the place to indicate this when you submit or re-edit your citation. This field has been provided expressly for this purpose, and its use is preferable to sending us a simultaneous e-mail message. ILL staff will see your message immediately once they begin processing your request, rather than possibly some time after the fact. You may enter a few sentences of reasonable length, as the 'Notes' field can hold up to 255 characters.
The 'Source of Citation' fields, though not required, are also very useful in helping us search for the material you need. These are where you can indicate where you learned about the item you are requesting, and should not be used to duplicate the information you enter into the 'Notes' field. You should provide the title of the article, research paper, book, etc., or the research database entry, that refers to the material you are requesting. (Please do not use these fields simply to re-enter the same information for what you are actually requesting.) It is especially helpful if the source of citation you indicate is something library staff will have fairly easy access to (i.e., print or electronic journals, abstract/index databases already in our own holdings)r. If you refer to a rare or esoteric source, we may have to ask you to provide an actual copy of it to us, should we experience excess difficulty in verifying your citation.
Remember that the more information you can provide when citing the items you need for your research, the better we can avoid processing delays in providing your interlibrary loan materials.
This is an issue that presents a problem mainly when requesting copies of journal articles, conference papers or book chapters. If you choose to submit your request by citing an abbreviated title (whether standard or non-standard) for a journal or conference, it can require additional processing time for ILL staff while searching the available holdings of potential lender libraries. If you cannot provide a full title, it is always helpful for you also to cite the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) for journals and serial conference proceedings or the ISBN (International Standard Book Number) for individual conference proceedings or books, if you have that information available. By searching OCLC WorldCat, you may also be able to obtain the OCLC Accession Number for a serial or book, and this is extremely time-saving if you refer to it in your ILLiad request.
An invaluable resource that can help to provide full journal titles, standard abbreviations and/or ISSN's is available at Abbreviations.com. It is organized by subject area, and offers links to various serial title database sites. Of course we always recommend that you check the Research Databases offered in our own library page, or consult our reference librarians at (216) 368-6596 or at email@example.com.
Keep in mind that the more precise you can be in citing the materials you need for your research, the less likely processing delays may occur and the sooner your articles will be provided to you through our interlibrary loan services.
One Item per ILLiad Transaction, Please
When submitting ILL requests through your ILLiad account, we do ask that you enter one transaction for each individual item that you need. Attempting to request several items on a single form will lead to delays in processing by ILL staff, as it will require us to separate the original request into as many as correspond to the total number of items actually cited.
When you wish to request Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Conference Papers, Patents, or Standards, you must submit one request form per each reproduced item that you need. If you require a journal or newspaper article that appears in more than one part or installment, you need to cite each individual part on a separate form. If you need more than one chapter from the same book, or more than one paper from the same conference proceedings, you will likewise need to complete an individual request form for each one. Sometimes, as in these last two cases, it may be preferable simply to submit a loan request for the entire book or proceedings rather than several copy requests. Occasionally (though not without some difficulty), we are even able to borrow entire volumes of journals (in print or on microfilm), if circumstances warrant.
The same is generally true when you need to make loan-type requests (Books, Reports, Theses, etc.). If you need to borrow multiple volumes from a single loan title set or series (within reason), it is usually OK to include them on a single request. However, when an individual volume within a larger series has its own title, it is preferable to request it separately and cite it by this title rather than by that of the series. (It may also be helpful to make reference to the series title and volume number in the 'Notes' field of your ILLiad request form, though.) In cases where you specifically require more than one edition of the same book title, however, we ask that you still keep your requests for these separate.
Proper Entry of Data into Article Request Forms
Apologies if this seems a bit trivial, but it's an issue that's come up often enough that I've felt the need to comment on it -- so here goes...
When requesting journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, etc., please remember that your ILLiad request forms are specifically provided with the necessary fields for the relevant pieces of information from your citations. We recommend that you enter each of the individual data pieces from your article citations only into their corresponding fields, i.e., volume number, issue number, year, inclusive pages, and so on.
Please also note that each field is designed to accommodate only a reasonable number of characters for the piece of data specified. Therefore, we do not recommend attempting to enter an entire citation string into every field, as characters will likely be omitted through truncation. ILL staff will then need to spend additional time editing the request text (and possibly researching and verifying the citation to recover any lost information), thus delaying the entire process.
We especially recommend that you enter the year into its designated field by itself, and other parts of the date (month, quarter, etc.) into their own field. Isolating the year helps us to better deal with any potential copyright issues.
Remember that the clearer you are about presenting your citation information, the quicker we can process your article request and have needed material delivered to you.