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August 08, 2005

Genetics in the literature

Genetics in the Literature

(all available on request)

Development and validation of tools to assess genetic discrimination and genetically based racism.
J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 Jul; 97(7): 980-90
Parrott RL, Silk KJ, Dillow MR, Krieger JL, Harris TM, Condit CM

It is possible that communication from mass media, public health or consumer advertising sources about human genetics and health may reify stereotypes of racialized social groups, perhaps cueing or exacerbating discriminatory and racist attitudes. This research used a multifaceted approach to assess lay perceptions of genetic discrimination and genetically based racism (N = 644). Two tools for use in strategic planning efforts associated with communicating about human genetics and health, the genetic discrimination instrument (GDI) and the genetically based racism instrument (GBRI), were derived. We recommend application of these screening tools prior to national dissemination of messages associated with genes and disease susceptibility, including school and university-based curricula.

Variation in gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers.
Physiol Genomics. 2005 Jul 12
Eady JJ, Wortley GM, et al

The normal degree of intra- and inter-individual variation in gene transcription profiles of healthy human tissues was studied in white blood ceels. Transcript levels for the majority of genes examined were found to be remarkably consistent within samples from a single donor, while, marked differences were observed in samples obtained from different donors. The findings are important for determining how individuals may respond to different medicines and for determining nutritional needs.

Human gene banks.
Med Ethics (Burlingt, Mass). 2005;12(1):1-2
Williams G

Heterogeneity of the genome ancestry of individuals classified as White in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Am J Hum Biol. 2005 Jul-Aug;17(4):496-506
Marrero AR, Das Neves Leite FP, et al

Individuals classified as White, living in different localities of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, were studied in relation to mtDNA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms. In a specific population characterized by Italian immigration, the results indicated almost complete European ancestry. However, another sample identified as White, from different localities of Rio Grande do Sul, presented significant fractions of Native American (36%) and African (16%) mtDNA haplogroups. These results indicate that Brazilian populations are remarkably heterogeneous; while some present an overwhelming majority of transplanted European genomes, with a complete correspondence between physical appearance and ancestry, others reflect a history of extensive admixture with dissociation between physical appearance and ancestry.

Ethical, legal and social issues of genetically modifying insect vectors for public health.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Jul;35(7):649-60
Authors: Macer D

The use of genetically modified (GM) insects for control of human disease can be consistent with common ethical norms of international society to reduce human suffering. This paper considers a range of ethical issues including animal rights, informed consent, community consensus and environmental viewpoints.

Pharmacogenomics in admixed populations.
Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Apr;26(4):196-201
Authors: Suarez-Kurtz G

Personalized drug therapy proffered by pharmacogenomics must be based on the recognition of inherent genetic individuality, rather than relying on inter-ethnic differences in the frequency of polymorphisms that affect the pharmacokinetics and targets of drugs. This is particularly significant in admixed populations, in which the substructure created by inter-ethnic crosses further increases the fluidity of racial and/or ethnic labels. Extrapolation on a global scale of pharmacogenomic data from well-defined ethnic groups is plagued with uncertainty. This review examines the challenges and advantages of studying pharmacogenomics in admixed populations, drawing examples mainly from the trihybrid populations of the Americas.


In utero gene therapy: current challenges and perspectives.
Mol Ther. 2005 May;11(5):661-76
Authors: Waddington SN, Kramer MG, Hernandez-Alcoceba R, Buckley SM, Themis M, Coutelle C, Prieto J

This review will examine the concepts and practice of prenatal vector administration, highlighting the advantages of early therapeutic intervention on diseases that could benefit greatly from a prenatal gene therapy approach. We will pay special attention to the strategies and vectors that are most likely to be used for this application and will speculate on their expected developments for the near future.

SNP discovery in associating genetic variation with human disease phenotypes.
Mutat Res. 2005 Jun 3;573(1-2):41-53
Authors: Suh Y, Vijg J

In this review, we discuss genetic association studies and address the prospect for candidate gene association studies. Our focus is on the continuous need for SNP discovery methods and the use of currently available prescreening methods for large-scale genetic epidemiological research until more advanced sequencing methods currently under development will become available.

Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium: advances, limitations and guidelines.
Nat Rev Genet. 2005 Jul 12;
Authors: Smith MW, O'brien SJ
Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD) is a theoretically powerful, although unproven, approach to mapping genetic variants that are involved in human disease. MALD takes advantage of long-range haplotypes that are generated by gene flow among recently admixed ethnic groups, such as African-Americans and Latinos. Under ideal circumstances, MALD will have more power to detect some genetic variants than other types of genome-wide association study that are carried out among more ethnically homogeneous populations. It will also require 200-500 times fewer markers, providing a significant economic advantage.

Keeping medical research ethical.
Science. 2005 Jul 8;309(5732):246
Authors: Obyerodhyambo O
A letter to the editor notes that the that local communities may participate in research with the idea that, by becoming subjects, they are in fact buying "insurance."

Navigating an ethical patchwork--human gene banks.
Nat Biotechnol. 2005 May;23(5):539-45
Authors: Maschke KJ
Population genetics research collaborations are reaching increasingly across national boundaries to access human tissue repositories. Will discrepancies in national policies on informed consent and IP rights hinder progress?

Linkage of genetics and ethics: more crossing over is needed.
Biol Cell. 2005 Jul;97(7):599-604
Authors: Lissemore JL
The web sites of five different organizations that deal explicitly with genetics and ethics are reviewed here.

rsp10 August 8, 2005 03:29 PM