October 18, 2005
The name game
When I first started getting interested in the so-called 'intelligent design creationist' (IDC) movement, I noticed that they were very careful about terminology and insisted on using specific terms.
For example, IDC people would divide science up into two categories that they called 'empirical science' and 'origins science.' Empirical science was defined by them as the kind of science where you could do experiments in laboratories or in the field. Origins science dealt with subjects that dealt with the origins of things and which had happened long ago. So theories of cosmology, astronomy and, most importantly (for them), evolution of life came under the heading of 'origins' science.
They were also very insistent on avoiding the use of the terms 'creationist' and 'God' and pushed for the use of the term 'design' which they used to mean things that were not randomly created. 'Intelligent design' was used by them to denote design by a human-like intelligence and not by (say) a computer program.
Since I came from the scientific world where what something is called is not what is important and it is the operational definition that matters, I was initially willing to go along with their terminology. The problem was that I discovered that rather than the names being used just as a harmless label for the underlying operational definition, as is the case in science, in the case of intelligent design, no operational definition was forthcoming. Instead, the names themselves became used as arguments, so that conceding to them the choice of names meant conceding a substantial portion of the argument.
Let me illustrate with some examples. Since they did not use the name God in their literature, they could proffer the claim that theirs was not a religious theory ("See, nowhere do we use 'God' in our work"). Also, since they did not use the name 'creationist,' they could dissociate themselves from the young-Earth creationist (YEC) movement and the old-earth creationist (OEC) movement, both of which explicitly mentioned god in their literature and had already been struck down by the courts as being religious in nature and thus inappropriate for inclusion in science classes. Also, the YEC and OEC were embarrassing to the IDC people in that they interpreted the Bible literally (to differing degrees) and thus alienated a lot of potential allies.
This attention to words and language has been part of a careful thought-out strategy. In testimony in the Dover, PA case, it was shown that in the book Of Pandas and People which the students were explicitly told to read as an 'antidote' to evolution, early drafts of the book used the words creationism but later replaced it with intelligent design. This enables the intelligent design people to claim that their theory does not involve god because they avoided providing an operational definition for intelligent design or an intelligent designer. If they did so, it would be hard to see how that operational definition was not functionally equivalent to an operational definition of god.
Robert T. Pennock in his book Tower of Babel points out that all these theories are variations of creationism, and he creates a classification scheme that lists them as YEC, OEC, and IDC (for intelligent design creationism). This is the terminology that I have adopted and will use henceforth so that the relationship of intelligent design to creationism is kept explicit, and IDC people cannot hide their creationist links.
The use of the empirical/origins science distinction is another example of this verbal sleight of hand. By dividing science in this way, and by putting evolution into the origins science category, they then try to imply that evolution is not an empirical theory! Since the word 'empirical' implies data-driven and subject to the normal rules of scientific investigation, casting evolution as 'origins science' is part of an attempt by IDC people drive a wedge between evolution and other theories of science and make it seem less 'scientific.'.
The IDC people also assert that the way we evaluate theories is different for the two categories. They assert that 'empirical science' can be tested experimentally but that 'origins science' cannot.' This assertion allows them to claim that how competing theories of 'origins science' should be evaluated is by seeing which theory 'explains' things better.
I have already shown that using 'better' explanations as a yardstick for measuring the quality of theories leads one down a bizarre path where the 'best' explanation could well be the Raelian theory (or ET-IDC using Pennock's classification scheme). But it is important to see that the reason that the IDC people can even make such a claim is because of their artful attempt to divide science into 'empirical' and 'origins.'
The fact is that all science is empirical. All scientific theories ultimately relate to data and predictions. If one wants to make distinctions, one can say that there are historical sciences (evolution, cosmology, astronomy) that deal with one-time events, and non-historical sciences where controlled experiments can be done in laboratories. But both are empirical. It is just that in the historical sciences, the data already exists and we have to look for it rather than create it.
But IDC people don't like to concede that all science as empirical since that would mean that they would have to provide data and make predictions for their own theory just like any other empirical theory, and they have been unable to do so. This is why it is important that the scientific community not concede them the right to categorize the different kinds of science in the way they wish, because it enables them to use words to avoid the hard questions.